The final section discusses the legal technicalities that the Bureau of Aeronautics faced in its procurement activities after the passage of the Aircraft Procurement Act of The author of the history was Lieutenant Commander William O. Shanahan, USNR. These two volumes contain ten separate narratives dealing with the accelerated procurement of naval aircraft between and Part I of the first volume, the administrative control of procurement and production within the Bureau of Aeronautics is characterized. The second part of the volume describes the administrative activities related to the procurement of government-furnished equipment.
The history of the Inspection Division from its establishment in is dealt with in Part VI, with emphasis placed on the expansion experienced during The second volume begins with a history of Army-Navy cooperation in aircraft procurement and details the establishment of requirements, production scheduling, contract regulations, competition for resources, and design and development standardization.
Aid to Allied governments within the framework of lend-lease agreements is covered in the second part of the volume, while the third deals with the procurement of such special devices as radar equipment. Part IV discusses the administration of the security program for personnel in factories manufacturing classified material. Most of the individual sections of the two volumes include appendices containing basic policy directives and copies of forms used to administer the procurement effort. The various sections were written by Lieutenant Commander W.
In this monograph, the history of the transport glider program is presented as a case study in aviation procurement. The volume begins with a listing of the extensive records that were examined by the author and a concise summary of the volume. The basic narrative is divided into three parts, the first of which is a comprehensive.
The second part evaluates the role of individual aeronautical contractors in the glider program. Part III is a detailed cost accounting of the project. The remainder of the volume consists of an appendix containing fifty-one exhibits. This material includes articles, reports, letters, directives, and memoranda. A number of blueprints and photographs of gliders also appear in this section. This well documented volume is divided into three distinct parts, each representing a phase in the chronological history of the administration of naval aviation personnel prior to World War II.
Part I, the shortest section, deals with the period before World War I, when naval aviation was in its infancy. The second part is a chronological account of developments relating to aviation personnel between and The contents deal primarily with the World War I and postwar period, and emphasis is placed on the establishment of the various aviation enlisted ratings.
The years from to are described in Part III. Included are accounts of the administrative effort to supplement aviation personnel through the Naval Reserve system and the use of enlisted pilots. Lieutenant Taulman A. This volume is concerned with the administration of naval aviation personnel between and The first section focuses on the period of limited national emergency from to The second, covering the war years, provides a history of administrative activities involved in increasing the number of qualified aviation personnel, rotating personnel in combat, maintaining training standards, and collecting data for the formulation and operation of the program.
An historical account and appraisal of statistical control methods employed by the Personnel Division of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations Air is included in the third section. The discussion furnishes insight into the administrative relationships with the Bureau of Naval Personnel and other commands. Following the narrative is a bibliographical note discussing source material utilized in the preparation of the volume. Weems, Jr. For the period from December to September , the text is divided into geographic sections covering operations in the North, South, Central, and Southwest Pacific.
The remainder of the text includes sections for the Philippines, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa campaigns during late and Besides providing an overall picture of the naval air units assigned to operations, each section lists specific aviation units involved and the ships in which the aircraft were based. The compilers were Lieutenants Andrew R. Hile, Jr. Golden, USNR. The units comprising land-based air task forces in the Pacific during World War II are listed in this volume. Each section identifies those land-based aircraft units operating within a given task force at any given time. The compilers include Lieutenant Commander Henry M.
The development of special functions and the expansion of the wings during World War II also are discussed. Appendices contain organizational data, a chronology of significant dates, and copies of selected dispatches. The author of the narrative was Lieutenant A. This compilation outlines the organization of air task forces assigned to specific sea frontiers, European waters, and the South Atlantic.
An added section on the United States Fleet covers escort carrier task forces and aviation components based at Newfoundland, Greenland, and Iceland. Each of the geographic sections is divided into time periods. According to the preface of the volume, this reconstruction of air task organization in the Atlantic Area is based on operation plans and orders, supplemented by war diaries and unit histories.
Divided into five parts, this history methodically discusses all aspects of the administration of the Marine Corps in World War II. The narrative begins with a brief prologue providing an overview of command structures, personnel procurement and training, and logistical problems. The second part outlines the organizational structure and functions of the various divisions of Marine Corps Headquarters, including personnel, quartermaster, paymaster, plans and policies, and aviation.
Of the two parts that follow, the first deals with the Department of the Pacific, which was responsible for most Marine activities in the Eleventh, Twelfth, Fifteenth, and Seventeenth Naval Districts, while the second describes the wartime operation of Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Part V, containing twelve chapters, is a lengthy explanation of the administration of the Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. Such aspects as command responsibilities, training, procurement of personnel, and administrative relationships with other commands are examined in detail.
Included with the general administrative history is an additional narrative section, designated Annex A, that traces the development and operation of the Marine Corps Women's Reserve from to Accompanying this lengthy annex is an appendix listing sources used in the preparation of this section of the history. These volumes present a summary of the twenty-volume administrative history of the Bureau of Aeronautics that covers the period July to June The overall administrative history was prepared by personnel of the Technical Services Corporation under a contract with the bureau.
The authors of the two summary volumes were Carl Berger and Dr. Mapheus Smith. The prewar history of the Bureau of Aeronautics is presented in this volume. Among the topics treated are the origins and development of naval aviation, the establishment of the Bureau of Aeronautics, the role of the American aircraft industry, and congressional actions related to naval aviation.
In addition, the bureau's research programs, internal organization, relationships with other organizations, and aspects of personnel and training are discussed. The work is well documented. Together with other volumes in the series, it includes an excellent chronology of major events. Two basic documents on the establishment of the. The first draft of the volume was prepared jointly by Ashley F. Davis, Norman R. Pyle, and William F. A revised draft was prepared by Bee Stockton and edited by Dr. An overall summary of the organization and functions of the Bureau of Aeronautics during is provided in this volume.
The study begins with an examination of the divisional organization of the bureau. Subsequent discussion covers the reorganization of the entire activity in as a result of the management study conducted by Booz, Fry, Allen, and Hamilton; the transfer of planning and other important functions to the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations Air in ; the establishment of the Integrated Aeronautic Program; and the bureau's reorganization in In addition, the narrative reviews the administration of several maintenance programs of the bureau, such as those dealing with management improvement, equipment and office supply, communications, and security.
The appendix includes pages of key documents, the bulk of which were originated by the Bureau of Aeronautics and the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations Air. The volume was prepared initially by Bee Stockton. It was rewritten and edited by Dr. The narrative begins with a general treatment of the background and extent of the bureau's operational responsibilities and the events leading to the transfer, in August , of most of these duties to the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations Air.
Examples of the wide scope of responsibilities included the organization and assignment of aviation operational units and the transportation of naval aircraft within the United States. The bureau's relationships with other organizations regarding operational policy and duties also are discussed. Important memoranda and organizational documents are included in the appendix. The first draft of the study was prepared by Bee Stockton.
It subsequently was rewritten and edited by Dr. The organizational arrangements and procedures employed in the determination of military characteristics of naval aircraft and of aeronautical equipment are described in this brief but well documented narrative. It also outlines the continuous process by which changes in characteristics were made throughout the war years. Among the specific examples discussed were the determination of characteristics in regard to torpedo bombers, scout planes, armor, and compasses.
The appendix includes a number of memoranda pertaining to military requirements, policy and other pertinent documentation. The author of the volume was Dr. This history places special emphasis on the planning of aircraft production and the allocation of aircraft to perform specialized functions. Among the topics discussed in the first five chapters of the narrative are the establishment of formal planning procedures during World War II; the reassignment of planning functions when the Office of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations Air was established in August ; and the subsequent steps taken by the Bureau of Aeronautics to build its own planning organization.
The final chapter focuses on postwar planning developments. The extensive appendix contains copies of directives, plans, and reports. The author of the study was Dr. The procurement and production programs of the Bureau of Aeronautics during the inter-war period and World War II are evaluated in this volume. Information is included on the status of the aircraft industry, manpower difficulties, the related activities of other government organizations, and the bureau's policies and procedures that affected its procurement and production functions.
Major emphasis is placed on the organization of the bureau in these fields and its record of accomplishment during the war years. Contracting policies and procedures are discussed in broad terms, with considerable detail presented on certain key decisions. A separate appendix volume contains numerous memoranda, reports, charts, and organizational diagrams related to topics dealt with in the text. The first draft of the work was prepared by Norman R. Mapheus Smith reorganized and edited the final manuscript. The organization, policy, procedures, and problems of the Bureau of Aeronautics in inspecting aircraft and aeronautical material during the wartime production process are analyzed in this volume.
The cooperation of the bureau with the Army Air Force and other organizations in regard to inspection also is evaluated. Several important memoranda and reports, and an organizational diagram, are included in the appendix. The narrative was written by Norman R. Pyle and edited by Dr. A detailed discussion of programs concerned with assembly, repair, maintenance, and overhaul of aircraft and aeronautical equipment, implemented by the Bureau of Aeronautics both in Washington and in the field, is provided in this volume.
The administrative structure, policy decisions, procedures, and accomplishments of these programs are detailed. Special attention is given to the planning and review aspects of maintenance. Over half of the volume consists of appendix documents. Key letters, memoranda, and orders are located in this section. The study was prepared by Carl Berger and edited by Dr. This narrative examines the contribution of the Bureau of Aeronautics to aviation supply during World War II and the bureau's postwar efforts to prepare for future national emergencies. To a considerable extent, the discussion focuses on the bureau's cooperation with other organizations in supplying aeronautical material for use by the Navy.
Among the extensive appendices are various letters and other documents originated by the Bureau of Aeronautics as well as by other organizations associated with aviation supply. The author of the narrative was Carl Berger. Final editing was undertaken by Dr. Following a brief description of the prewar research and development functions of the Bureau of Aeronautics, this history reviews some of the administrative aspects of these programs during World War II.
The narrative presents a general. Much of the material for this history was derived from a ten-volume report on the bureau's research and development activities that was prepared for a Senate investigation of the national defense program in An appendix includes numerous key letters, memoranda, and orders, in addition to several charts. The first version of this manuscript was completed by Carl Charlic.
Carl Berger prepared the second version, which subsequently was edited by Dr.
List of Histories
The part played by the Bureau of Aeronautics in developing and administering aviation shore establishments during World War II, and in the demobilization period immediately following the war, is discussed in this volume. Considerable attention is given to the bureau's overall planning of air bases and to changes in the number and type of planes assigned to these facilities. Principal sources used in writing the narrative included "Aviation Shore Establishment, ," one of the administrative history volumes prepared for the Office of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations Air ; and the World War II administrative history of the Bureau of Yards and Docks.
Copies of other official documentary sources that were utilized are located in a lengthy appendix section. Among these are various directives, reports, and tables. The authors of the volume were Ashley F. Pyle, William Reinke, and. Divided into three parts, this history reviews the administration of personnel by the Bureau of Aeronautics and the fulfillment of the bureau's training responsibilities. The first part focuses on the organization's own military and civilian personnel.
Part II deals with the bureau's administrative activities related to other personnel involved in naval aviation, and Part II examines training responsibilities. Both of these overall functions ended in August when such activities were transferred to the newly established Office of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations Air. Much of the material in this volume is taken from the personnel and training volumes in the administrative history series of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations Air. The forty pages of appendix documents are divided into three parts, corresponding with the text, and include directives pertaining to personnel qualifications and charts indicating personnel strengths at different periods during the war.
The volume's author was Norman R. This narrative deals with the process by which the Bureau of Aeronautics obtained operating funds and the policies and procedures. In discussing the first of these aspects, detailed accounts are given of all appropriation bills for each fiscal years during the war, showing the steps involved in evaluating budget needs and in requesting and obligating funds for each major subdivision of naval aviation.
The bureau's administration of the budget is presented as a chronological analysis divided into two chapters, one covering the war years and the other the postwar period through The appendix section contains copies of key directives and orders, a glossary of terminology used in financial planning, and a number of statistical tables. Mapheus Smith and Norman R. Pyle prepared the volume.
HOGBEN, Lieutenant Commander George L. — National Museum of the Royal New Zealand Navy
The role of the Bureau of Aeronautics in the field of aviation photography during World War II is outlined in this volume. Among the topics covered are the procedures and problems related to administering the bureau's photographic division; the expansion and operation of training programs for photographers, photographic interpretation specialists, and other photographic technicians; and accomplishments in development, procurement, and supply of photographic equipment and material. The bureau's part in military photography, including intelligence applications, also is discussed.
The training film program and film cataloging activities are examined. Granville W. Dutton submitted the first draft of this history, while the final manuscript was rewritten and edited by Dr. This study briefly describes the administration of the Navy's aerological program by the Bureau of Aeronautics. The discussion focuses on the bureau's role in the development, support, and operation of the aerological service.
Although planning, policy making, and operational responsibilities for aerology were transferred to the Office of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations Air in , the bureau continued to have budgetary, research, procurement, supply, and maintenance responsibilities. Besides examining administrative aspects of the aerological program, the narrative considers research efforts that were undertaken, including relationships with other government organizations engaged in climatological and meteorological studies. Fourteen documents related to the aerological program are included in the appendix.
Mapheus Smith was the author of the volume. A concise history of the general and technical publication program of the Bureau of Aeronautics during World War II is presented in. Such aspects as organizational and administrative arrangements, Army-Navy coordination, procurement, reproduction, distribution, indexing, forms control, and field liaison are discussed.
Copies of various directives, letters, and memoranda constitute the appendix section of the volume. The authors were Ashley F. Davis and Dr. A history of the wartime activities of the Bureau of Aeronautics in aiding Allied nations is presented in this work. This program operated under the auspices of lend-lease and was part of the Navy's extensive effort to provide material assistance in the war against the Axis powers. The narrative covers the background of foreign aid, describes lend-lease operations, and includes a chronological outline of the bureau's administration of defense aid between and Along with copies of directives and instructions, organizational charts and statistical tables related to the bureau's foreign aid effort are included in the appendix.
The history was prepared by Norman R. This manuscript presents a review of the organization and activities of the Bureau of Aeronautics in the field of aviation medicine during the war and in the immediate postwar period. An account of some of the most important accomplishments to which the bureau made a contribution also is included. Among the topics treated in the narrative are the bureau's involvement in oxygen, high altitude, and vision research; in studies of the effects of acceleration, deceleration, impact, and noise; in investigation of fatigue and stimulants; and in the development of suitable uniforms for aviation personnel.
Most of the appendix documents are reports of medical research undertaken by the bureau. The authors were Granville W. Dutton and Dr. Following an explanation of the operational and technical aspects of naval air intelligence, this narrative examines the contribution of the Bureau of Aeronautics to these intelligence programs during World War II. The first part of the discussion deals with operational intelligence from until , when this function was transferred to the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations Air.
The remainder of the narrative is devoted to an analysis of the bureau's use of technical intelligence during the war years. The appendix includes a variety of documents related to both the operational and technical facets of intelligence. The first draft of this study was prepared by Granville W. This was revised by Norman R. The relationship of the Bureau of Aeronautics with Headquarters, U. Marine Corps, and the means by which the bureau provided material support for Marine Corps aviation, are discussed in this history.
Management and training of Marine Corps aviation personnel also are covered. Several memoranda and organizational charts are located in the appendix. The authors of the volume were Bee Stockton and Dr. The volumes describe the operational role of naval medical units ashore and afloat during the war. Part I begins with a discussion of the Medical Department's preparedness prior to Pearl Harbor and its activities during and after the attack. Actions in the Philippines and the Netherlands East Indies are focused upon in the subsequent narrative. Part III examines events associated with the defeat of Japan, including the Iwo Jima and Okinawa operations, and the beginning of the occupation of Japan.
The Allied invasions of North Africa. The narrative in each part covers planning and training for the various campaigns, activities during amphibious assaults, establishment of medical care facilities ashore, methods of supply, medical reports, and sanitation procedures. Each chapter concludes with a list of source materials. Several chapters also contain appendices covering such subjects as casualty statistics and supply inventories. Numerous photographs are found throughout the volumes. The entire study was a collective effort by a staff of historians and researchers directed by Lieutenant Commander Chester L.
The administration of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery during the war is the focus of this history. The narrative is divided into four parts, the first of which discusses the organization of the bureau. Besides documenting its wartime expansion, this section includes brief background information tracing developments during the interwar period. Part II examines various bureau functions, including the operation of naval hospitals and dispensaries, as well as various educational and training programs.
A summary of the Marine Corps medical program also. A more detailed consideration of the bureau's activities in the continental United States is provided in the third part. A similar treatment of the same type of activity outside the United States appears in the final section. Such aspects as facility planning, supply of medicine and medical equipment, and the operation of particular medical activities are covered in each of the last two parts. Most chapters include an indication of published and unpublished materials upon which the narrative was based.
In addition, various statistical tables, certain organizational charts, and some reports are included as appendices. A staff of historians and researchers directed by Lieutenant Commander Chester L. A general description of the organization and mission of the Bureau of Ordnance during World War Ii is provided in this volume.
The prewar administrative structure of the bureau, its reorganization in , and other wartime measures developed for improved management are detailed. Data are included on office functions,. The bureau's relationships with other naval entities, as well as the Army, are considered. The volume concludes with a discussion of the administrative procedures used in coordinating the numerous ordnance establishments under the cognizance of the bureau. A list of ordnance activities along with several statistical tables and charts are included in the appendices to the volume. An annotated bibliography of bureau publications also is found in this section.
This study focuses on the work of the Planning and Progress Division of the Bureau of Ordnance between and A thorough discussion of the establishment and functioning of the division's directives system provides insight into the administrative machinery designed to initiate and carry out the bureau's programs. Also included is an analysis of the effort to provide statistical data essential to planning activities. The bureau's important role in the lend-lease program is treated in a separate section of the narrative.
Various statistics, such as a detailed breakdown of expenditures for ordnance materials supplied through lend-lease, are provided in this section. Key documents are included as appendices. The narrative begins in , but concentrates on the immediate prewar and war years. Considerable detail is presented on purchasing procedures, as well as the various types of contracts employed. A chapter of procurement statistics outlines costs by item and year. The contributions of specific personnel involved in these programs are noted throughout the study. Organizational charts are included in the text.
In addition, six appendices provide supplementary discussions of such subjects as the ordnance inspection service of the bureau and the procurement of machine tools and facilities. This volume contains two sections. The first examines the wartime administrative structure and activities of the Research and Development Division of the Bureau of Ordnance. Specific functions of several offices within the division are discussed, including those of the Design Group, the Ship Characteristics and Fleet Requirements Subsection, and the Ammunition Quality Evaluation Unit. Topics reviewed include supervision of research activities and contracts, patent administration, packaging and materials handling, and analysis of foreign ordnance.
The second section of the volume is an administrative history of the bureau's Maintenance Division. The narrative emphasizes the disposition and supply of ordnance equipment and material, which was one of the most important functions of the division. Details also are presented on other activities, including. Information regarding demobilization and postwar ordnance planning is provided in the final pages of the text.
A series of organizational charts appears in the appendices. Several aspects of the wartime operation of the Bureau of Ordnance are presented in the five separate parts of this volume. The first part begins by discussing the assignment of large numbers of qualified officers and men to meet the bureau's expanded staff requirements in Washington and in the field.
Among the subsequent topics covered are the allocation, classification, training, promotion, and demobilization of personnel. For the most part, the appendices relate to training programs, although one statistical table shows the increase in the number of officers assigned to the bureau from to An analysis of the organization and administration of civilian manpower employed by the bureau is provided in the second section. That office was responsible for securing, allocating, and regulating the use of funds. The development of allocation procedures for both regular and lend-lease appropriations is detailed.
Monthly status reports reflecting estimates and expenditures for all types of ordnance in are located among the appendices. Also included are an organizational chart; summaries of the bureau's investment in land, buildings, and equipment; and a table showing yearly appropriations from to Special Board on naval Ordnance are reviewed briefly in the fourth part.
This group of senior officers dealt with technical programs and policies that extended across organizational lines within the bureau. The final section of the narrative summarizes the wartime role of the bureau's Office of Counsel. Following a brief introduction, each of the twelve basic chapters of this study examines the development, production, and distribution of a specific type of weapon used by the Navy in World War II.
Among the ordnance discussed are machine, antiaircraft, 3-inch, 5-inch, 6-inch, 8-inch, inch, and inch guns, as well as small arms. In addition to providing much technical data, the commentary on each weapon details the prewar and wartime history of its use. Efforts to increase production and improve efficiency of particular weapons are recounted. Various factors involved in the procurement and placement of heavy guns on board ships also are considered.
Closely related to this subject is the review made of the development and employment of mounts for different ordnance items. The appendices include key correspondence, sample procurement contracts, and brief historical summaries of certain topics. Divided into five parts, this work examines the development, production, and allocation of specific ordnance items. The first. Problems confronted in expanding manufacturing facilities are analyzed.
Aspects of armor research and development also are covered. The subsequent section on projectiles deals with efforts to coordinate production to meet Army, Navy, and Allied needs. Among the difficulties that had to be overcome was the procurement of adequate quantities of armor-piercing projectiles at a time when only a few contractors had experience in the field.
Development and manufacture of fuzes is the primary emphasis of the section concerning ammunition. The discussion details the history of various types of fuzes used during the war. In addition, the production of cartridge cases, powder tanks, and other containers is treated. A descriptive list of all wartime fuze types, contractors, and quantities produced are included in the appendices to the section.
Bomb procurement and manufacture is the subject of the fourth part of the volume. Army-Navy efforts to standardize bomb requirements also are outlined. The appendices to the section provide detailed statistical tables on production quantities and types of bombs. The final section examines experimentation and utilization of plastics for ordnance purposes. Ammunition, bomb racks, batteries, cartridge cases, gauges, gun mounts, mines, rockets, and torpedoes were among the numerous items for which plastics were tested. This volume follows a format similar to that of the others in the series by focusing on particular weapons and devices.
The first part of the narrative details the administration and. A brief history of rocket development and concise descriptions of the various types of rockets used during World War II are presented. Several statistical tables and charts showing rocket production follow the narrative. The appendix accompanying this section provides concise histories of several types of rocket launchers. The second part of the volume outlines the general history of explosive ordnance and its employment during the war. Discussions are included on research and development efforts involving explosives and propellants, wartime production activities, and the transportation facilities and techniques developed for such material.
The final narrative section reviews the development, production, and use of pyrotechnics such as flares, signals, and markers. The five sections of this volume examine the equipment developed by the Bureau of Ordnance for use in underwater warfare. The opening section deals with degaussing devices and techniques used to reduce magnetic fields around ships so as to protect them from magnetically detonated mines and torpedoes.
Topics covered include the design and installation of equipment, as well as the procurement and training of personnel involved in degaussing. Mine development and production is the subject of the second part of the volume. A summary of the offensive mining of Japanese home waters is included in this section.
The following part is devoted to booms and nets, including those used to protect harbors and individual ships and submarines. The wartime employment of depth charges is treated in part four. Various types of charges are described. The final section focuses on torpedoes. Besides covering production and maintenance of torpedoes and torpedo launching gear, the narrative provides historical and technical information on this weapon.
Several appendices contain statistical data on the ordnance discussed in the test. The first part of this narrative discusses the intensive research and development in fire control, undertaken prior to and during World War II, and the production of fire control devices by commercial contractors. The coverage includes the general fire control systems used on board ships, and specialized equipment for underwater ordnance and antiaircraft weapons.
The second section of the volume focuses on aviation ordnance, including its associated fire control equipment. Much emphasis is placed on the development and production of various types of ordnance such as aircraft guns, guided missiles, bomb racks, and smoke equipment. Several memoranda and reports on fire control and aviation ordnance are located in the lengthy section of appendices. The first section of this history is a brief summary of the entire series of administrative histories of the Bureau of Naval Personnel.
A list of the authors involved in the project is included. An outline of the organization and responsibilities of the bureau's numerous divisions is presented in the second section. The opening chapter presents a helpful review of the bureau's operations between the World Wars and an analysis of major organizational changes during World War II. The ensuing chapters briefly survey much of what is detailed at greater length in subsequent volumes. A substantial bibliography of both unpublished and published source materials follows the text.
Three volumes of appendices accompany this study. Numerous directives related to organization, policy, and procedure are found in the first volume, while the second contains a series of organizational charts. The final volume is a copy of a management study by Booz, Fry, Allen, and Hamilton surveying the personnel of the bureau. Among the key responsibilities of the activity were the development of general personnel policies and the preparation of manpower plans, both of which were undertaken by its Plans and Operations Division. The work of this division is treated in the first section of narrative.
Besides detailing its internal organization, the discussion covers the relations of the Plans and Operations Division with field activities. The second section of the history deals with the Finance and Material Division, which administered the bureau's finances and the allocation of material. Among topics examined are the division's preparation of the bureau's budget, handling of appropriations, and liaison with other units within the Navy Department.
The relationship of the Office of the Bureau Counsel to the division's fiscal section is reviewed briefly at the end of the narrative. The counsel's office was established primarily to assist in the drafting, negotiation, and administration of contracts for training naval personnel at non-Navy institutions. A brief bibliography of unpublished and published source material is found at the end of the volume.
In addition, personnel who were interviewed in connection with the history are listed. The separate volume of appendices includes several significant memoranda, as well as a wide variety of reports and bulletins prepared by the various elements within the Planning and Control Activity. The first concerns the Officer Procurement Division, which was responsible for the selection of officer candidates. The narrative focuses on organization and operations, including the activities of two of the division's major field offices at New Orleans, Louisiana, and Chicago, Illinois.
Along with two volumes of procurement directives, a study evaluating factors involved in the selection of officer candidates is provided among the appendices to the history. The second history deals with the functioning of the bureau's Officer Distribution Division. That organization classified and assigned officers and prepared duty and transfer orders. In addition, the division arranged the release of officers from the Navy for reasons of hardship.
All of these duties are examined in the narrative. A number of important reports, manuals, memoranda, and forms constitute the appendices to the volume and are bound separately. The work of the Officer Performance Division is detailed in the final history. Besides handling matters related to the promotion, retirement, discharge, and discipline of all naval officers, that office oversaw the collection and review of fitness reports; administered the awarding of decorations, medals, and citations; and had cognizance over matters related to uniforms.
It also undertook the compilation and publication of the Navy Register and Reserve Register. Several documents pertaining to the various activities of the division are found in a separately bound appendix. Lieutenant Hayden also prepared this history. Each of the three studies is followed by a list of persons interviewed as part of the author's research.
This set of volumes details the work of the Bureau of Naval Personnel's Training Activity, which initiated and administered training programs for naval personnel through its various divisions. Volume I discusses operations of the Standards Curriculum Division.
World War II: Admiral of the Fleet Sir Andrew Cunningham
That organization planned curricula, prepared training publications and correspondence courses, and determined achievement levels to be attained from various forms of instruction. The activities of the division ranged from the training of instructors to developing skills among illiterate recruits. Besides its other duties, the division undertook the coordination of voluntary educational services for naval personnel and analyzed qualifications derived from training to assist in the assignment of personnel. Accompanying Volume I is a separately bound appendix entitled "Personnel Research and Test Development in the Bureau of Naval Personnel," which provides a series of articles outlining the activities of the Standards and Curriculum Division's Test and Research Section.
Numerous methods of selection, classification, and achievement testing are described in the various articles. The different types of follow-up studies undertaken by the section are discussed. Sample test materials and forms, as well as graphs and statistical compilations, are found throughout the text and in lengthy appendices. Although the articles were prepared by several authors, the editor of the entire volume was Lieutenant Commander Dewey B. Stuit, USNR.
The first organization maintained general supervision over numerous specialized. In addition, it administered a variety of educational programs at universities and other non-naval institutions, assigned students to the numerous schools and programs, and handled student affairs related to housing and other matters. The division also obtained facilities and materials needed to operate training programs and oversaw the Navy-wide physical fitness program.
The Quality Control Division was charged with the inspection of all field training activities and liaison with schools connected with the Navy. Lieutenant Siebert prepared the study of the Quality Control Division. A history of the U. Following an introduction summarizing the installation's development prior to World War II, several chapters consider such topics as the wartime organization and administration of the command, its recruit training program, and the operation of those service schools located at the center. The final two chapters deal with training black personnel and athletic programs.
A group of eight appendices include organization charts, lists of orders and regulations, curriculum outlines, and a copy of the company commander's manual. Among these were charts, models, posters, and pamphlets.
- POLES AND GRIDWORK (Threshold Picture Guides).
- In Search of the Soul: Four Views of the Mind-Body Problem!
- Events In History.
- Predator: The Life and Crimes of Serial Killer Clifford Olson.
- Beowulf: An Imitative Translation.
- Confessions of a Courtesan.
The organization also edited the Naval Training Bulletin that disseminated information on training standards. Besides reviewing the organization's administration of its other activities, the narrative outlines efforts to distribute training devices and training materials prepared by other divisions. Various charts and forms are found throughout the history. The narrative was prepared by officers. Volume IV of the basic narrative presents a history of the Navy's college training or V program.
Among the topics discussed are the origins of the V program, its relationship to the War Manpower Commission, the process by which colleges were selected for participation, procurement of qualified personnel for placement in the program, organization of the academic curriculum, and the administrative structure established within the bureau. Three appendices located at the end of the volume include histories of the V program at Dartmouth College and of the College Training Section of the Field Administration Division, as well as an important memorandum on college contract negotiations.
In addition, two volumes of V bulletins accompany the history as separately bound appendices. The four basic histories provide a list of numerous individuals interviewed during the preparation of each study. In some cases, documentary sources also are noted. A considerable quantity of these unbound appendices is located in another collection of the Navy History Division. In detailing the expanding opportunities for these personnel, the history examines recruiting practices, training, personnel administration, and duty assignments.
Throughout the narrative, accomplishments and problems in the area of integration are evaluated. A bibliography of documentary material consulted and the names of persons interviewed during the preparation of the study follow the narrative. In addition, over thirty photographs are located throughout the text. This administrative history is one of the major sources for Dennis D. Nelson's The Integration of the Negro into the U. Navy Farrar, Straus and Young, Assigned numerous responsibilities related to welfare, recreation, and entertainment, the Welfare Activity of the Bureau of Naval Personnel was composed of the Special Services, Corrective Services, and Dependents Welfare Divisions, as well as the Informational Services Section.
The operations of the latter section are reviewed briefly in the first part of the history. The section also provided editorial assistance to numerous ship and station newspapers throughout the Navy. In the second part of the narrative, the Special Services Division is treated. That organization arranged numerous forms of entertainment for naval personnel, coordinated library services, and maintained ship service stores and officer and enlisted messes on shore.
The work of the Corrective Services Division is discussed in the third part. That division administered the shore patrol and naval prisons. In a series of twelve separate reports and chronologies, the final section of the history covers the activities of the Dependents Welfare Division. Among these functions were processing applications for the payment of allotments, family allowances, death gratuities, and. In addition, in early , the Division was assigned the responsibility of administering the National Service Life Insurance program for naval personnel.
The five separate histories in this volume cover the work of the Chaplains' Corps, Records Division, Transportation Division, Office of Public Information, and administrative service activities of the Bureau of Naval Personnel. The first history begins with an examination of the objectives and organization of the Chaplains' Corps during the war. Discussion of the development of a comprehensive training program, assignment of chaplains, and distribution of religious material follows.
The final part of the history outlines the Corps' relationship with various denominations and how ecclesiastical support for its activities was obtained and increased. Histories of the two divisions of the Bureau's Records and Transportation Activity are found in the second and third parts of the volume. Among other topics, the treatment of the Records Division details the development of effective records management and the eventual usage of filing systems based on automated technology.
The other division, Transportation, handled arrangements for travel of naval personnel on non-Navy conveyances. Analysis is. Also covered is the division's role in demobilization efforts. In the fourth history, the wartime administration of the office of the Special Assistant and Director of Public Information is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on training officers to handle public relations and on efforts to arrange press and radio coverage of naval events.
In addition, the establishment and operation of a function devoted exclusively to processing photographic material for public use is discussed. The final history dealing with Administrative Services is a brief report summarizing administrative responsibilities of various offices of the Bureau. The account treats the wartime functioning of the three major subdivisions under the bureau's Director of Enlisted Personnel: enlisted personnel procurement, distribution, and performance. In the first part, various facets of the procurement process, such as recruitment, voluntary enlistment, and the Selective Service system are discussed, both chronologically and topically.
Particular attention is given to the effort to obtain combat aircrewmen, radio technicians, and men for ship repair and construction units. In Part II, the text discusses the enlisted personnel distribution procedures and the organizational structure that existed prior to the Pearl Harbor Attack and throughout World War II. The subjects covered included personnel selection techniques, shore duty rotation,.
The final section deals with aspects of enlisted personnel performance, including disciplinary standards and enforcement of discipline, punishment procedures, the administration of discharges, and the initiation, processing, and recording of promotions.
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The text contains statistical tables, graphs, and lists of sources used in compiling the history. The appendix volume consists of recruiting and induction reports, letters, memoranda, rating classifications, plans for improving the classification system, pamphlets, and sample forms and discharge papers. These volumes detail the wartime history of naval women, with particular emphasis on their training and contributions to the war effort. The text provides a comprehensive discussion of how the decisions leading to the establishment of the Women's Reserve on 30 July were formulated in the Navy and in the legislative and executive branches of the government.
The organizational evolution of the office of the Director of Women's Reserve within the Bureau of Naval Personnel is described, with a focus on significant problems encountered. Other subjects treated include relationships with other functions in the Navy Department, with naval shore commands, and with the women's organizations of the other services; the procurement and induction of personnel; public relations; the establishment of naval schools and training facilities at various private.
The text contains a list of sources and numerous photographs of training facilities and personnel. Pettee, respectively. Flow charts, reports, memoranda, letters, site plans, regulations, an officers' roster, conference notes, tables, and graphs, as well as a detailed narrative, comprise the history of the Naval Training School, the Bronx, New York, which is separately bound. A history of the administration of the Bureau of Ships from until early is provided in these four volumes.
Following a brief discussion delineating the Bureau's origins, the first volume outlines the enlargement and reorganization of the Bureau to meet the impending crisis of world war. Particular attention is focused on efforts to recruit additional personnel and to expand federal and private shipbuilding facilities. Volume II covers the post Pearl Harbor period through the beginning of The success of the Bureau's salvage efforts in Hawaii following the Japanese attack, as well as later salvage activities, are treated in detail.
Continuing expansion of personnel and facilities is discussed along with the production and allocation of scarce materials.
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Fortunately, further signals convinced Tovey that Bismarck was, indeed, heading northwest. Sheffield herself had ventured too close and now received a salvo from Bismarck. Making smoke and retreating, she was straddled by a second salvo which killed five men and put the surface radar out of action. Soon after, Captain Philip Vian with his five destroyers swept past Sheffield with the intention of further disabling Bismarck by a torpedo attack.
Bismarck was now essentially unmanoeuvrable. He had to be forcefully dissuaded from this plan by Hogben and the navigator. Three torpedo hits from Dorsetshire , combined with the effects of scuttling charges, finished her off. At From her crew of , survivors were rescued by British warships and five by a U-boat and a German weather ship. Sheffield returned to Gibraltar but was soon on the move again.
A captured cipher machine and other intelligence had allowed the decoders of Bletchley Park to determine the positions of the supply ships waiting for Bismarck and on 12 June Sheffield surprised the tanker Friedrich Breme in mid-Atlantic. The tanker scuttled herself as she was fired on , with Sheffield rescuing 88 survivors. Hogben was lucky to survive this action. A tactful reminder to the captain that more than one observer had been lost during tricky retrievals kept the Walrus firmly on board. The escort for nine transports comprised the battleships Rodney, Prince of Wales and HMS Nelson , the carrier Ark Royal for air defence, plus five cruisers and eighteen destroyers.
The convoy came under sustained day and night air attack, but only one ship was lost and 85, tons of supplies were successfully delivered to the island. Intercepted north of the Azores she was sunk by the Kenya.
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The ship was assigned to the 18 th Cruiser Squadron of the Home Fleet, which was based in Iceland to escort Russian convoys. In the midst of the bitter cold and stormy seas of a northern winter, escort duty was difficult and dangerous work. With his meteorological training Hogben was able to assess the local weather patterns more accurately than the regular forecasts that came from the Admiralty.
This assessment gave him a better feel for the weather to be expected for the next few days and helped him to estimate where a scattered convoy ship might be. On 1 December Sheffield joined the escorts of convoy PQ 5 and the six merchant ships were brought safely to Archangel. Detached from this duty to escort a Russian convoy, Sheffield detonated a mine off northeast Iceland on 4 March, the explosion killing one marine sentry.
In early July the Admiralty, overestimating the likelihood of attack on convoy PQ 17 by the enemy capital ships based at Altafjord in northern Norway, ordered the convoy to scatter and the escorting force to withdraw. This calamitous decision resulted in 23 vessels being picked off by Luftwaffe bombers or by U-boats. With this disaster very much in mind convoy PQ 18 in September was well provided with escorts, was kept in a very tight cruising order and was the first to have an escort carrier, HMS Avenger.
In spite of very determined torpedo-bomber attacks 27 of its 40 ships reached Archangel. Sheffield accompanied this convoy to the Barents Sea and then, with the cruiser HMS Cumberland , delivered personnel and supplies to the garrison on Spitsbergen before escorting from Archangel the west-bound convoy PQ 14, which lost three ships to U-boat attacks.
Having transferred the Americans into landing craft, Sheffield became part of the Eastern Naval Task Force covering the assault on Algiers on 7, 8, and 9 October. Once Algiers was secured, the push to Tunis required the more easterly ports of Bougie and Bone to be seized and at dawn on the 11 th Sheffield escorted three transports landing troops at Bougie. The assault was unopposed, but a collision with the minesweeper HMS Cadmus damaged Sheffield and she returned to Scapa Flow for repairs. A sojourn in the bleak confines of Orkney did not please men who had hoped the repairs would be done in a mainland dockyard.
But keeping Sheffield there allowed her to be available to intercept any enemy warship attempting to pass through the Orkney-Faeroes gap. By mid-December Sheffield was back in Iceland ready for more Russian convoy duty — and another bleak winter. Russian convoy defensive tactics had been reviewed after PQ This review brought to a head marked differences in outlook between the Admiralty and the C-in-C Home Fleet.
The Admiralty wanted to continue with large convoys while Admiral Tovey considered that small convoys were better suited to the winter conditions. He believed that as daylight lessened, enemy air reconnaissance would become less effective and thus a small convoy had a greater chance of evading attacks. A small convoy was also more easily reformed if dispersed by stormy weather. Flying the flag of Rear Admiral R. Burnett, Sheffield now commanded by Captain A. The voyage was without incident and the convoy arrived safely on 25 December.
However, the voyage of the 14 ships of its twin convoy JW 51B, which left Britain on the 22 nd , was to be very different. After several quiet days, it was beset by unusually strong gales, with some ships losing sight of the main body. Most eventually rejoined it but two proceeded to Murmansk independently.
In fact, in spite of the action Sheffield and Jamaica were about to engage in to protect the convoy, the two ships never sighted the convoy at all. On the morning of the 31 st , Burnett was some thirty miles north of the convoy while a German force, consisting of the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper Admiral Oskar Kummetz and three destroyers had crossed its wake twenty miles astern. In contrast with the wintry gales that were so common on the Murmansk convoy route, the weather was fairly clear with low cloud and a slight sea.
Nevertheless, the ships had a good covering of ice. Sherbrooke in HMS Onslow led his destroyers towards the enemy while the merchant ships continued steaming east making smoke. From the bridge of Sheffield the flashes of gunfire could be seen on the horizon. About fifteen minutes later Burnett received a report of the enemy presence, just after Hipper had appeared on the scene and begun a punishing attack on Onslow. Meanwhile Hipper had sunk a minesweeper and badly damaged two destroyers. In the racing Sheffield , Hogben was busy calculating ranges from his radar traces and feeding them to the gun director.
At about With Hipper damaged by three hits, Kummetz disengaged his force and retreated to the west, followed by the cruisers. Two fleeing enemy destroyers were intercepted by radar and were attacked, with Sheffield sinking Friedrich Eckholt , while the other, fired on by Jamaica , escaped without harm. The convoy had turned away making smoke when Hipper suddenly appeared, firing for a short time on the escorts.
This attack did not last and the enemy force continued its retreat. About the cruisers again engaged briefly with the enemy without damage to either side and the pursuit was abandoned about His duty as officer-in-charge of the plotting office was, in the conditions of visibility, of vital importance, the success of the tactics employed by the force being greatly dependent upon the accuracy and precision of the plot.
All this was provided by him in full measure. In February Hogben left Sheffield and the excitement of battle. He was interviewed in London by the Director of Naval Education, who, very pleased to have a decorated instructor officer, offered him a posting as a senior meteorological officer in an aircraft carrier. Hogben, however, preferred a different job — although there were, obviously, no details, it was common knowledge that the Allies were preparing to retake Europe and Hogben wanted to help prepare for this invasion, wherever and whenever it came.
This he was permitted to do, joining the forecast section of the Naval Meteorological Branch, which was then housed in the basement of the main Admiralty Building. New data arrived every six hours and the synoptic charts were put together for one, two, three, four and five days ahead. The three sections remained separate, sharing their analyses and forecasts — and reaching agreement — by telephone.
Once June had been decided upon as the best month for the landings in Normandy, there were many considerations in setting the exact date for D-Day and the time of the initial landings H-Hour. A tide that would be high three hours after underwater obstructions had been cleared was necessary for the landing craft.
Ease of navigation required a moonlit night, and this was also important for bombing and the parachute assaults. These predictable phenomena gave only five possible days — 5, 6, 7, 19 or 20 June. The unpredictable factor was of course the weather. All three sections analysed the same meteorological data, which included German observations decoded by Bletchley Park. However, the British and the Americans held fundamentally divergent theories of forecasting, and this made it difficult to arrive at a consensus.
The USAAF men, both from the California Institute of Technology, were convinced that their analogue method of comparing the current prediction with weather maps from the past would give reliable 5-day forecasts. The British, knowing their changeable maritime weather patterns at first hand, were sceptical of this approach.
They considered that a one-day or, at the most, a two-day forecast was the realistic limit of reliability. With the gifted Norwegian, Petterssen, in the Meteorological Office section, the British approach was a dynamic one using RAF-supplied high altitude wind and temperature data. In addition, the two naval members not unexpectedly thought they were the only ones who really understood the vagaries of the Channel.
These divergences meant the discussions leading to an agreed forecast were often quite lengthy and heated, giving Stagg an unenviable task in trying to get the necessary consensus from the team to present to the senior Overlord planners. A particular problem of wartime forecasting was the paucity of observations from out in the Atlantic Ocean. Not only were the numbers of ships reduced but the restrictions on wireless transmissions gave weather data a very low priority, so for the D-Day forecasts special arrangements were made for this data to be transmitted from ships at sea.
The question of the reliability of five-day versus two-day forecasts was resolved to the satisfaction of Eisenhower and his staff in May. During a run of fairly settled weather the five-day forecasts proved to be quite unreliable while 18 reasonably accurate two-day forecasts of acceptable weather for the invasion were made. The crucial date of D-Day would thus be determined by a two-day forecast.
At the beginning of June a settled Atlantic anti-cyclone centred to the west of Portugal began to give way to a number of impending North Atlantic depressions, with their associated fronts bringing unsettled weather to the Channel. A calm period was ending on Friday 2 June but what weather conditions would follow, and when?
The team concurred in the expectation of a major change about Tuesday the 6 th , but in fact the change was clearly happening by Saturday and that evening was to be the time of the decisive forecast. By 4am on the Sunday morning the six forecasters were united in predicting strong winds, overcast low cloud and rough seas for Monday the 5 th. Eisenhower was advised accordingly, and two hours before the main invasion force was to leave he reluctantly postponed the landings for 24 hours.
While the two Meteorological Office men were more cautious, the Americans and the naval members of the team agreed that a strengthening ridge of high pressure following the expected rain and winds of the Monday would bring in its train a short period of suitable weather, even if, as it turned out, it was only marginal. The first groups of the cross-Channel invasion fleet sailed early that morning from the Portsmouth area. A following westerly breeze Beaufort 5 brought swells and choppy seas, causing some of the smaller craft to be swamped, but by dawn the following morning all assault convoys were in place and the greatest seaborne invasion in history began.
The moonlit night had allowed bombers to operate and parachutists to land. The Germans, aware that the moonlight and the tides from 5 June to 7 June would be advantageous for an invasion, were nevertheless great believers in the efficacy of long-range forecasts.
They had thought the conditions predicted for most of June to be unfavourable and the senior army and navy commanders were absent as the first Allied troops streamed ashore on the coast of France. Back in England, six forecasters and their presenter waited in some trepidation as the Normandy assault went ahead. Would the assault convoys get to France and effect successful landings or would the period of favourable weather they had predicted prove to be too short? Would raging seas, gales and thick cloud wreck the whole great enterprise?
Or would the Normandy landings be successful and turn the tide of the war? They were, of course, successful and a grateful Eisenhower awarded the US Bronze Star to Lawrence Hogben and his colleagues for their efforts. It could, however, have been very different. Had the weather on 6 June been unsuitable for the invasion, all would have hinged on the forecast for the 19 th. For that date, the six members of the forecasting team were unanimous in predicting calm seas and clear skies. They were wrong. After working on the D-Day forecasts, Lawrence Hogben continued with the Admiralty Meteorological Branch, working on plans for the invasion of Japan until the end of the war.
For several years he was involved in commercial forecasting, in particular for the film industry. In he retired to live in Soyans, near Crest, in the Rhone Valley, where he was active in local civic affairs. Awarded French nationality, he lives there still with his wife, Elaine, whom he had met at Oxford in and married while on leave after the Bismarck action.
Bassett, R. London, Arms and Armour, Bates, C.