When he breaks the surface of the water he finds himself, for the first time, in moonlight.
Grendel goes no further the first night, but as time passes he ventures farther and farther out into this strange new world. He realizes that the unspeaking strangers seem to look past him or through him; only his mother truly looks at him. She looks at Grendel as if to consume him, and he has an inexplicable understanding that they are connected, possibly even a single entity.
His mother responds by smashing him to her breast as if to make him part of her flesh again. Comforted by this gesture, Grendel can then go back to his exploratory games. One day, lured out to the upper world by the smell of a newborn calf, Grendel finds himself painfully trapped in a tree. He bellows for his mother, but she does not come. In his pain and desperation, he imagines he sees her shape in a black rock, in a shadow, and in a cave entrance, but each vision turns out to be a cruel tease. Grendel realizes that the bull has struck too low and will always strike too low; the bull is a creature of blind instinct.
This event causes Grendel to experience a revelation that the world is nothing but a chaotic mess of casual, brute violence. Grendel understands that he alone exists, that everything else in the world is merely what he pushes against or what pushes back against him. The bull continues to attack Grendel, but Grendel ceases to pay attention. Sign up. The best games for Nintendo Switch. Latest in Gaming. Image credit:. Sponsored Links.
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Source: Level Hume offers two arguments against this selfish view. He first asks us to consider cases in which people are motivated by a genuine concern for others, even when such concern could not possibly benefit them and might even harm them. We grieve when a friend dies, even if the friend needed our help and patronage. How could our grief be based in self-interest? Parents regularly sacrifice their own interests for the sake of their children. Non-human animals care about members of their own species and us. Hume supplements this argument from experience with a highly compressed sketch of an argument he borrows from Butler.
Happiness consists in the pleasures that arise from the satisfaction of our particular appetites and desires. It is because we want food, fame, and other things that we take pleasure in getting them. If we did not have any particular appetites or desires, we would not want anything and there would be nothing from which we would get pleasure. To get the pleasures that self-love aims at, we must want something other than happiness itself.
Hume rightly showcases his pioneering account of justice. In the Treatise , he emphasizes the distinction between the natural and artificial virtues. The natural virtues—being humane, kind, and charitable—are character traits and patterns of behavior that human beings would exhibit in their natural condition, even if there were no social order.
Hume believes that nature has supplied us with many motives—parental love, benevolence, and generosity—that make it possible for us to live together peacefully in small societies based on kinship relations. One of his important insights is that nature has not provided us with all the motives we need to live together peacefully in large societies. After arguing in Treatise 3. The first question concerns justice as a practice constituted by its rules. Hume argues that we enter into a series of conventions to bring about practices, each of which is a solution to a problem.
Each convention gives rise to new problems that in turn pressure us to enter into further conventions. The convention to bring about property rights is only the first of several into which we enter. After property rights are established, we enter into conventions to transfer property and to make promises and contracts. According to him, we are by nature cooperators, although at first we cooperate only with members of our own family.
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But it is also advantageous for us to cooperate with strangers, since it allows us to produce more goods and to exchange them. All three conventions are prior to the formation of government. Hume argues that the practice of justice is a solution to a problem we naturally face. The problem is that since we care most about our family and close friends, but material goods are scarce and portable, we are tempted to take goods from strangers to give to our family and friends.
Disputes over these goods are inevitable, but if we quarrel we will forfeit the benefits that result from living together in society—increased power, ability, and security. The solution to the problem is to establish property rights. Hume was one of the first to see that what is useful is the practice of justice, rather than individual acts of justice. Like Hobbes, he believes that it is in our interest to have the practice of justice in place.
As we just saw, Hume parts company with Hobbes when he answers the second question about why we approve of people who obey the rules of justice. We approve of just people not because they benefit us but because we sympathize with the benefits they bestow on others and society as a whole.
Hume thus explains our approval of justice by appealing to the same principle he invoked to explain our approval of the natural virtues. Thus while. While it is in our interest to have the practice of justice in place, it may not always be in our interest to obey its rules in every case. This is the free rider problem.
The free rider, whom Hume calls the sensible knave, wants to get the benefits that result from having a practice in place without having to always follow its rules. He knows that the only way to obtain the advantages of social cooperation is for the practice of justice to be in place, but he also realizes that a single act of justice will not significantly damage the practice. Most people will obey the rules of justice, so if he commits one act of injustice, the institution will not be in any danger of collapsing.
Suppose he has the opportunity to commit an act of injustice that will benefit him greatly. Hume confesses that if the sensible knave expects an answer, he is not sure there is one that will convince him. If his heart rebel not against such pernicious maxims, if he feel no reluctance to thoughts of villainy or baseness, he has indeed lost a considerable motive to virtue….
There is no general agreement about whether Hume actually provides an answer to the sensible knave and if he does, whether it is adequate. Hume wrote forcefully and incisively on almost every central question in the philosophy of religion, contributing to ongoing debates about the reliability of reports of miracles, the immateriality and immortality of the soul, the morality of suicide, and the natural history of religion, among others. All his work excited heated reactions from his contemporaries, and his arguments still figure centrally in discussions of these issues today.
In the debates about causation and ethics, there is an initial critical phase , where Hume assesses the arguments of his predecessors and contemporaries, followed by a constructive phase , where he develops his own position. In the natural religion debate, however, the situation is very different. Instead of resolving this debate, Hume effectively dissolves it. The Dialogues are a sustained and penetrating critical examination of a prominent argument from analogy for the existence and nature of God, the argument from design.
The argument from design attempts to establish that the order we find in the universe is so like the order we find in the products of human artifice that it too must be the product of an intelligent designer. The Dialogues record a conversation between three characters. Cleanthes and Demea represent the central positions in the eighteenth—century natural religion debate.
Instead, they used the order and regularity they found in the universe to construct a probabilistic argument for a divine designer. Holdouts clung to demonstrative proof in science and theology against the rising tide of probability. Demea is the champion of these conservative traditionalists.
There was no genuinely sceptical presence in the eighteenth—century natural religion debate. This makes Philo , who both Cleanthes and Demea characterize as a sceptic , the ringer in the conversation. Demea holds that God is completely unknown and incomprehensible; all we can say is that God is a being without restriction, absolutely infinite and universal. Natural objects and human artifacts resemble one another, so by analogy, their causes also resemble each other.
God is therefore like a human mind, only very much greater in every respect. He launches a battery of arguments to show just how weak it is. The dissimilarities between human artifacts and the universe are more striking than their similarities. We only experience a tiny part of the universe for a short time; much of what we do experience is unknown to us. How can we legitimately infer anything about remote parts of the universe, much less the universe as a whole? We have no experience of the origin of a universe.
Since causal inference requires a basis in experienced constant conjunction between two kinds of things, how can we legitimately draw any conclusion whatsoever about the origin of the universe? Does it even require a cause? One or many? Does the cause of the universe itself require a cause? The problem, then, is not just that the analogy is weak; the real problem is that it attempts to take us beyond what we can know. The barbs they throw at each other, and the speeches Philo goads them to make, help create a dilemma that Philo uses them to construct.
He directs the dilemma at Cleanthes, but it affects both characters, although Demea is slow to realize this. He argues that mystics like Demea are no better than atheists , since they make God so remote and incomprehensible that he bears no resemblance to human characteristics. Demea adds that giving God human characteristics, even if they are greatly magnified, denies him attributes theists have always ascribed to him. How can an anthropomorphic God have the unity , simplicity, and immutability of the God of traditional theism?
If he accepts the argument from design, he must be committed to a God who is finite in all respects. But what does it mean to say that God is finitely perfect? Why think that the universe is more like a human artifact than an animal or a vegetable? To illustrate, Philo throws out a number of outlandish alternative hypotheses. Total suspense of judgment is the only reasonable response.
Otherwise, we go beyond the bounds of anything to which we can give specific content. We can only give the idea of God intelligible content at the perilously high cost of denying that he is really God. To do so is to abandon God for some kind of superhero.
Demea offers an a priori alternative to the design argument in Part 9.
Demea begins the discussion in Part Our forms of worship are attempts to appease unknown powers that oppress and torment us. DCNR They proceed with a joint litany of the misery and melancholy of the human condition, topping each other with catalogues of woes. Demea is also scornful of theodicies, blissfully unaware that all too soon he will be offering his own. But hoping that the extent of human misery is not so widespread is not the same as proving that it is. Cleanthes is on weak ground. He thinks he finally has Philo on the ropes.
In forcing a sceptic to prove a positive thesis, he must not only succeed at a difficult task, but violates his scepticism in the process. Cleanthes fails to realize that Philo will make his case without needing to prove anything, nor does he realize that he will soon be the one who needs a proof.
Demea objects that Cleanthes exaggerates the dire consequences of acknowledging the human condition, and, despite his earlier vehement rejection of theodicies, offers his own. Cleanthes retorts that Demea denies the facts, and offers only empty hypotheses, which, if intelligible at all, could only establish their bare possibility, but never their reality. Cleanthes has now put himself in the position in which he thought he had put Philo. He must establish that the facts are as he claims, and Philo is quick to stress how difficult this will be.
By resting his case on such an uncertain point, any conclusion he draws will be equally uncertain. Philo then ups the ante by granting for the sake of argument that human happiness exceeds human misery. But if God is infinitely powerful, wise, and good, why is there any misery at all? He admits that if we go beyond their usual meanings when we apply human terms to God, what we say is indeed unintelligible.
Freedom Essay 53 | Instinct v Intellect treatise is obvious (extended)
Abandoning all human analogy is thus to abandon natural religion, but preserving it makes it impossible to reconcile evil with an infinite God. Cleanthes realizes he has painted himself into a corner, but once again he thinks there is a way out. Instead of God, he is now committed to some kind of superhero.
Besides, the story he is telling is itself a theodicy. In any case, Cleanthes is no better off than he was before. Conjectures may show that the data are consistent with the idea of God, but are never sufficient to prove that he actually exists. Philo then proceeds to outline four possible hypotheses about the cause of the universe: it is perfectly good; it is perfectly evil; it is both good and evil; it is neither good nor evil.
The regularity and uniformity of the general laws we find in experience is sufficient to discount the third, so the fourth seems the most probable. On that hypothesis, the cause of the universe is entirely indifferent to the amount of good and evil in the world. These points about natural evil also apply to moral evil. We have even less reason, in fact, since moral evil outweighs moral goodness more than natural evil outweighs natural goodness. Since every effect must have a cause, either the chain of causes goes back infinitely, or it stops with the original principle that is the ultimate cause of all things—God.
If he leans on the mystery—mongering he has professed until now, Philo has shown that, because of its lack of specific content, it does not point exclusively to a good God. Commitment without content turns out to be no commitment at all. Demea realizes this, dimly at least, as he leaves the conversation. Philo seems to reverse field, apparently recanting what he has argued for so forcefully. His remarks are, however, by no means straightforward. Some take Philo—and, by implication, Hume—to be outing himself as a closet theist.
Others conclude that, since he holds all the cards at this point, he can afford to be conciliatory. But there is no need to force the irony here. In fact, what he says here reiterates his position in Part 8, that function alone is no proof of divine design:. I would fain know how an animal could subsist, unless its parts were so adjusted? DCNR 8. At the conversation continues, Philo provides a diagnosis of the dispute. But verbal disputes can be resolved—or dissolved —by providing clear definitions.
However, the dilemma about the content of our idea of God that Philo has constructed clearly implies that such a constructive solution is not possible here. Philo explains why only a critical solution is possible by offering a deeper diagnosis of the problem. These are the controversies concerning the degrees of any quality or circumstance. This is exactly what the dispute over intelligent design is about. The dispute about design is actually worse than a verbal dispute.
Anything is like anything else in some remote respect. So the ordering principle of the universe, if indeed there is one, can be absolutely anything. As it concludes, it is no longer clear that these questions are really so distinct as originally assumed. What, then, are we to make of the claim about his existence? EHU 2.
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If we stop short of the limit, we may have content, but we have also lost God. Life and Works 2. The relation between the Treatise and the Enquiries 3. Philosophical Project 4. Account of the Mind 4. Causation 5. The Idea of Necessary Connection 6.
Moral Philosophy 7. Philosophy of Religion 8. MOL 3 Katherine Falconer Hume realized that David was uncommonly precocious, so when his older brother went up to Edinburgh University, Hume went with him, although he was only 10 or As his diagnosis of traditional metaphysics reveals, Hume believes that the chief obstacle … to our improvement in the moral or metaphysical sciences is the obscurity of the ideas, and ambiguity of the terms. This suggests that There is a secret tie or union among particular ideas, which causes the mind to conjoin them more frequently, and makes the one, upon its appearance, introduce the other.
Hume maintains that this principle is custom or habit : whenever the repetition of any particular act or operation produces a propensity to renew the same act or operation … we always say, that this propensity is the effect of Custom. Hume intends these characterizations to go beyond merely recording intensity of feeling to capture how belief renders realities … more present to us than fictions, causes them to weigh more in the thought, and gives them a superior influence on the passions and imagination. Custom, Hume maintains, in language that anticipates and influenced Darwin, is that principle by which this correspondence has been effected; so necessary to the subsistence of our species, and the regulation of our conduct, in every circumstance of human life.
The first, A cause is an object, followed by another, where all the objects similar to the first are followed by objects similar to the second, gives the relevant external impressions , while the second, A cause is an object followed by another, and whose appearance always conveys the thought to the other, captures the internal impression —our awareness of being determined by custom to move from cause to effect.
As he says, It can never in the least concern us to know, that such objects are causes, and such others effects, if both the causes and effects are indifferent to us. But he complains that this is not only highly implausible, but also contrary to the usual maxims, by which nature is conducted, where a few principles produce all the variety we observe in the universe.
Thus while self-interest is the original motive to the establishment of justice: but a sympathy with public interest is the source of the moral approbation, which attends that virtue. Philosophy of Religion Hume wrote forcefully and incisively on almost every central question in the philosophy of religion, contributing to ongoing debates about the reliability of reports of miracles, the immateriality and immortality of the soul, the morality of suicide, and the natural history of religion, among others.
Philo joins in, claiming he is convinced that the best and indeed the only method of bringing everyone to a due sense of religion is by just representations of the misery and wickedness of men. In fact, what he says here reiterates his position in Part 8, that function alone is no proof of divine design: it is in vain … to insist on the uses of the parts of animals or vegetables and their curious adjustment to each other.
Selby-Bigge, 2 nd ed. Nidditch, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Keynes and P. Sraffa, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Selby-Bigge, 3 rd ed. Greig, 2 volumes, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Beauchamp, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Miller, Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, The History of England , edited by William B. Todd, Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, Mossner, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Works on Hume Ainslie, D. Ainslie, D. Allison, H. Baier, A. Baxter, D.
Beauchamp, T. Bennett, J.
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Blackburn, S. Bricke, J. Box, M. Brown, C. Morris, , Starting with Hume , London: Continuum. Buckle, S. Cohon, R. De Pierris, G. Dicker, G.