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Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish. Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion.

Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning pa Digestive enzyme ratios are good indicators of hatchling yolk reserve and digestive gland maturation in early life stages of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.

In Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, , the digestive gland matures during the first month post-hatching, while a shift from intracellular acid to extracellular alkaline digestion occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using enzymatic ratios for the description of digestive system maturation in early life stages of S. Second, it is intended to apply these new tools as eco-physiological indicators for understanding the impact of cuttlefish eggs' life history from different spawning sites of the English Channel on digestive performance of juveniles.

Four digestive enzyme activities and their ratios [i. The two enzyme ratios were good indicators of digestive system maturation allowing the study of the digestive gland's development. They were highly correlated to juveniles' weight increase and histological features of the gland in early DAH. These ratios described more accurately the shift occurring between the intracellular acid and the extracellular alkaline modes of digestion in S.

Their application as eco-physiological tools revealed that enzyme ratios reflected yolk content and digestive gland development in new hatching juveniles. De novo assembly and comparison of the ovarian transcriptomes of the common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella japonica with different gonadal development.

Full Text Available The common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella japonica has been considered one of the most economically important marine Cephalopod species in East Asia and seed breeding technology has been established for massive aquaculture and stock enhancement. In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the ovary tissues of S.

We hope that the ovarian transcriptome and those stage-enriched transcripts of S. Keywords: Cuttlefish , Gonad development, Transcriptome. Lateralization of eye use in cuttlefish : opposite direction for anti-predatory and predatory behaviors. Full Text Available Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey.

Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses.

Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish , Sepia officinalis, to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators i.

To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack.

Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional. Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey.

We used the European common cuttlefish , Sepia officinalis , to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory, and predatory behavior. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional specialization of. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis , including visual equivalence and amodal completion.

Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted.

SHORT ORAL PRESENTATION

In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence.

Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion.

The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods. Cuttlefish eggs and juveniles grow inshore where anthropic contamination is high. Following studies on the impact of trace metals on Sepia officinalis egg stage, this work intends to determine the sensitivity of cuttlefish juvenile stage against the trace metal zinc, using diverse biomarkers.

Our results showed the low ability of juvenile cuttlefish to regulate the assimilation of dissolved zinc, resulting in an important zinc-sensitivity. Non-lethal exposures i. Molecular cloning and transcriptional analysis of a NPY receptor-like in common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella japonica. Neuropeptide Y NPY has a pivotal role in the regulation of many physiological processes.

The putative protein was predicted to have a molecular weight of The amino acid sequence contained 12 potential phosphorylation sites and five predicted N-linked glycosylation sites. Multiple sequence alignment and 3D structure modeling were conducted to clarify SjNPYR bioinformatics characteristics. In addition, the transcriptional profile of SjNPYR - like in the brain, liver, and ovary during gonadal development was analyzed.

The results provide basic understanding on the molecular characteristics of SjNPYR-like and its potentially physical functions. Polarization vision in cuttlefish in a concealed communication channel? Polarization sensitivity is well documented in marine animals, but its function is not yet well understood. Of the cephalopods, squid and octopus are known to be sensitive to the orientation of polarization of incoming light. This sensitivity arises from the orthogonal orientation of neighboring photoreceptors. Electron microscopical examination of the retina of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.

Viewing cuttlefish through an imaging polarized light analyzer revealed a prominent polarization pattern on the arms, around the eyes and on the forehead of the animals. The polarization pattern disappeared when individuals lay camouflaged on the bottom and also during extreme aggression display, attacks on prey, copulation and egg-laying behavior in females. In behavioral experiments, the responses of cuttlefish to their images reflected from a mirror changed when the polarization patterns of the reflected images were distorted. These results suggest that cuttlefish use polarization vision and display for intraspecific recognition and communication.

Vertical visual features have a strong influence on cuttlefish camouflage. Cuttlefish and other cephalopods use visual cues from their surroundings to adaptively change their body pattern for camouflage. Numerous previous experiments have demonstrated the influence of two-dimensional 2D substrates e. We conducted laboratory experiments, using Sepia officinalis, to test the relative influence of horizontal versus vertical visual cues on cuttlefish camouflage: 2D patterns on benthic substrates were tested versus 2D wall patterns and 3D objects with patterns. Specifically, we investigated the influence of i quantity and ii placement of high-contrast elements on a 3D object or a 2D wall, as well as iii the diameter and iv number of 3D objects with high-contrast elements on cuttlefish body pattern expression.

Additionally, we tested the influence of high-contrast visual stimuli covering the entire 2D benthic substrate versus the entire 2D wall. In all experiments, visual cues presented in the vertical plane evoked the strongest body pattern response in cuttlefish. These experiments support field observations that, in some marine habitats, cuttlefish will respond to vertically oriented background features even when the preponderance of visual information in their field of view seems to be from the 2D surrounding substrate.

Such choices highlight the selective decision-making that occurs in cephalopods with their adaptive camouflage capability. Cuttlefish dynamic camouflage: responses to substrate choice and integration of multiple visual cues. Prey camouflage is an evolutionary response to predation pressure. Cephalopods have extensive camouflage capabilities and studying them can offer insight into effective camouflage design. Here, we examine whether cuttlefish , Sepia officinalis, show substrate or camouflage pattern preferences.

In the first two experiments, cuttlefish were presented with a choice between different artificial substrates or between different natural substrates. First, the ability of cuttlefish to show substrate preference on artificial and natural substrates was established.

Next, cuttlefish were offered substrates known to evoke three main camouflage body pattern types these animals show: Uniform or Mottle function by background matching ; or Disruptive. In a third experiment, cuttlefish were presented with conflicting visual cues on their left and right sides to assess their camouflage response. Given a choice between substrates they might encounter in nature, we found no strong substrate preference except when cuttlefish could bury themselves.

Additionally, cuttlefish responded to conflicting visual cues with mixed body patterns in both the substrate preference and split substrate experiments. These results suggest that differences in energy costs for different camouflage body patterns may be minor and that pattern mixing and symmetry may play important roles in camouflage. Element characterization of african cuttlefish , Sepia bertheloti from US recommended dietary reference intakes for people of different age groups.

These elements are of great nutritional value for proper and healthy growth of humans. During studies on the circulatory system of the cuttlefish Sepia Texas, Galveston, either B. Budelmann pers. The malformation consisted of a truncus- or cord- like structure that in most cases originated from a cone-like evagination on the left cranio-apical area of the heart ventricle.

It joined the atypical elongated right apical part of the ventricle on the inner side just below the Cuttlefish see shape from shading, fine-tuning coloration in response to pictorial depth cues and directional illumination. Humans use shading as a cue to three-dimensional form by combining low-level information about light intensity with high-level knowledge about objects and the environment.

Here, we examine how cuttlefish Sepia officinalis respond to light and shadow to shade the white square WS feature in their body pattern. Cuttlefish display the WS in the presence of pebble-like objects, and they can shade it to render the appearance of surface curvature to a human observer, which might benefit camouflage. Here we test how they colour the WS on visual backgrounds containing two-dimensional circular stimuli, some of which were shaded to suggest surface curvature, whereas others were uniformly coloured or divided into dark and light semicircles.

In addition, shading was enhanced when light fell from the lighter side of the shaded stimulus, as expected for real convex surfaces. Thus, the cuttlefish acts as if it perceives surface curvature from shading, and takes account of the direction of illumination. However, the direction of WS shading is insensitive to the directions of background shading and illumination; instead the cuttlefish tend to turn to face the light source. Comparative morphology of changeable skin papillae in octopus and cuttlefish. A major component of cephalopod adaptive camouflage behavior has rarely been studied: their ability to change the three-dimensionality of their skin by morphing their malleable dermal papillae.

Recent work has established that simple, conical papillae in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis function as muscular hydrostats; that is, the muscles that extend a papilla also provide its structural support. We used brightfield and scanning electron microscopy to investigate and compare the functional morphology of nine types of papillae of different shapes, sizes and complexity in six species: S. Most papillae have two sets of muscles responsible for extension: circular dermal erector muscles arranged in a concentric pattern to lift the papilla away from the body surface and horizontal dermal erector muscles to pull the papilla's perimeter toward its core and determine shape.

A third set of muscles, retractors, appears to be responsible for pulling a papilla's apex down toward the body surface while stretching out its base. Connective tissue infiltrated with mucopolysaccharides assists with structural support. In this case, mucopolysaccharide-rich connective tissue provides structural support.

These six species possess changeable papillae that are diverse in size and shape, yet with one exception they share somewhat similar functional morphologies. Future research on papilla morphology, biomechanics and neural control in the many unexamined species of octopus and cuttlefish may uncover new principles of actuation in soft, flexible tissue.

The huge development of bioengineering during the last years has boosted the search for new bioinspired materials, with tunable chemical, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties for the design of semiconductors, batteries, biosensors, imaging and therapy probes, adhesive hydrogels, tissue restoration, photoprotectors, etc. These new materials should complement or replace metallic or organic polymers that cause cytotoxicity and some adverse health effects.

One of the most interesting biomaterials is melanin and synthetic melanin-related molecules. Melanin has a controversial molecular structure, dependent on the conditions of polymerization, and therefore tunable. It is found in animal hair and skin, although one of the common sources is cuttlefish Sepia officinalis ink. On the other hand, mussels synthesize adhesive proteins to anchor these marine animals to wet surfaces.

Both melanin and mussel foot proteins contain a high number of catecholic residues, and their properties are related to these groups. Dopamine DA can easily polymerize to get polydopamine melanin PDAM , that somehow shares properties with melanin and mussel proteins. Furthermore, PDAM can easily be conjugated with other components. This review accounts for the main aspects of melanin, as well as DA-based melanin-like materials, related to their biomedical and biotechnological applications. Full Text Available The huge development of bioengineering during the last years has boosted the search for new bioinspired materials, with tunable chemical, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties for the design of semiconductors, batteries, biosensors, imaging and therapy probes, adhesive hydrogels, tissue restoration, photoprotectors, etc.

Dopamine DA can easily polymerize to get polydopamine melanin PDAM, that somehow shares properties with melanin and mussel proteins. Cuttlefish bone scaffold for tissue engineering: a novel hydrothermal transformation, chemical-physical, and biological characterization. Natural resources are receiving growing interest because of their possible conversion from a cheap and easily available material into a biomedical product. Cuttlefish bone from Sepia Officinalis was investigated in order to obtain an hydroxyapatite porous scaffold using hydrothermal transformation. Moreover, the material was biologically investigated with MC3T3-E1 in static cultures, using both osteogenic and maintenance media.

The expression of osteogenic markers as ALP and osteocalcin and the cell proliferation were investigated. Cuttlefish bone has been successfully transformed from calcium carbonate into calcium phosphate. Biological characterization revealed that osteogenic markers are expressed using both osteogenic and maintenance conditions.

Cell proliferation is influenced by the static culture condition used for this three-dimensional scaffold. The new scaffold composed by hydroxyapatite and derived for a natural source presents good biocompatibility and can be used for further investigations using dynamic cultures in order to improve cell proliferation and differentiation for bone tissue engineering. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids in Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings.

The objective of the present study was to characterise the fatty acid FA profiles of the major phospholipids, of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings, namely phosphatidylcholine PC , phosphatidylserine PS , phosphatidylinositol PI and phosphatidylethanolamine PE ; and to evaluate the capability of both cephalopod species on dietary phospholipid remodelling.

Thus, O. In contrast, in cuttlefish hatchlings [1- 14 C]ARA was mainly recovered in the same phospholipid that was provided. These results showed a characteristic FA profiles in the major phospholipids of the two species, as well as a contrasting capability to remodel dietary phospholipids, which may suggest a difference in phospholipase activities. Lifescience Database Archive English. Sepia esculenta oracle bones dried Sepiidae Sepiella japonica, Sep Full Text Available Meeting the increasing demand of clean water requires the development of novel efficient adsorbent materials for the removal of organic pollutants.

In this context the use of natural, renewable sources is of special relevance and sepia melanin, thanks to its ability to bind a variety of organic and inorganic species, has already attracted interest for water purification. Here we describe the synthesis of a material obtained by the combination of sepia melanin and poly ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride P E-alt-MA. Compared to sepia melanin, the resulting hybrid displays a high and fast adsorption efficiency towards methylene blue a common industrial dye for a wide pH range from pH 2 to 12 and under high ionic strength conditions.

It is easily recovered after use and can be reused up to three times. Given the wide availability of sepia melanin and P E-alt-MA, the synthesis of our hybrid is simple and affordable, making it suitable for industrial water purification purposes. Full Text Available Cuttlefish are highly visual animals, a fact reflected in the large size of their eyes and visual-processing centers of their brain.

Adults detect their prey visually, navigate using visual cues such as landmarks or the e-vector of polarized light and display intense visual patterns during mating and agonistic encounters. Although much is known about the visual system in adult cuttlefish , few studies have investigated its development and that of visually-guided behavior in juveniles. This review summarizes the results of studies of visual development in embryos and young juveniles.

The visual system is the last to develop, as in vertebrates, and is functional before hatching. Indeed, embryonic exposure to prey, shelters or complex background alters postembryonic behavior. Visual acuity and lateralization, and polarization sensitivity improve throughout the first months after hatching.

The production of body patterning in juveniles is not the simple stimulus-response process commonly presented in the literature. Rather, it likely requires the complex integration of visual information, and is subject to inter-individual differences. Though the focus of this review is vision in cuttlefish , it is important to note that other senses, particularly sensitivity to vibration and to waterborne chemical signals, also play a role in behavior.

Considering the multimodal sensory dimensions of natural stimuli and their integration and processing by individuals offer new exciting avenues of future inquiry. Cuttlefish are highly visual animals, a fact reflected in the large size of their eyes and visual-processing centers of their brain.

Adults detect their prey visually, navigate using visual cues such as landmarks or the e -vector of polarized light and display intense visual patterns during mating and agonistic encounters. Dynamic masquerade with morphing three-dimensional skin in cuttlefish. Masquerade is a defence tactic in which a prey resembles an inedible or inanimate object thus causing predators to misclassify it. Most masquerade colour patterns are static although some species adopt postures or behaviours to enhance the effect. Dynamic masquerade in which the colour pattern can be changed is rare.


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Here we report a two-step sensory process that enables an additional novel capability known only in cuttlefish and octopus: morphing three-dimensional physical skin texture that further enhances the optical illusions created by coloured skin patterns. Our experimental design incorporated sequential sensory processes: addition of a three-dimensional rock to the testing arena, which attracted the cuttlefish to settle next to it; then visual processing by the cuttlefish of physical textures on the rock to guide expression of the skin papillae, which can range from fully relaxed smooth skin to fully expressed bumpy skin.

When a uniformly white smooth rock was presented, cuttlefish moved to the rock and deployed a uniform body pattern with mostly smooth skin. When a rock with small-scale fragments of contrasting shells was presented, the cuttlefish deployed mottled body patterns with strong papillae expression. These robust and reversible responses indicate a sophisticated visual sensorimotor system for dynamic masquerade. Background: There is a great need for novel strategies to overcome the high mortality associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis IPA in immunocompromised patients.

To evaluate the antifungal and antihepatotoxic potentials of Sepia ink extract, its effect on liver oxidative stress levels was analyzed against IPA in Burton, David P. Many organizations require advanced tools to analyze their information system's security, reliability, and resilience against cyber attack. Today's security analysis utilize real systems such as computers, network routers and other network equipment, computer emulations e. In contrast, this work developed new methods to combine these three approaches to provide integrated hybrid SEPIA environments.

Our SEPIA environments enable an analyst to rapidly configure hybrid environments to pass network traffic and perform, from the outside, like real networks. This provides higher fidelity representations of key network nodes while still leveraging the scalability and cost advantages of simulation tools.

The result is to rapidly produce large yet relatively low-cost multi-fidelity SEPIA networks of computers and routers that let analysts quickly investigate threats and test protection approaches. Morphological and chemical composition characterization of commercial sepia melanin. Full Text Available granules with different size distributions that have been determined using image-J software. EDS reveals that C and O were the most abundant in sepia melanin Belitsky, V. De; Olofsson, H. De; Immer, K.

This manuscript aims to provide, for observers who use the SEPIA receiver, a reference in terms of the hardware description, optics and performance as well as the commissioning results. Congenital malformation of the systemic heart of Sepia officinalis l Numerous preparations of the circulatory system of Sepia officinalis L. The malformation consisted of a cord- or truncus-like structure at the left cranio-apical ventricle.

Tactical decisions for changeable cuttlefish camouflage: visual cues for choosing masquerade are relevant from a greater distance than visual cues used for background matching. Cuttlefish use multiple camouflage tactics to evade their predators. Two common tactics are background matching resembling the background to hinder detection and masquerade resembling an uninteresting or inanimate object to impede detection or recognition.

We investigated how the distance and orientation of visual stimuli affected the choice of these two camouflage tactics. In the current experiments, cuttlefish were presented with three visual cues: 2D horizontal floor, 2D vertical wall, and 3D object. Each was placed at several distances: directly beneath in a circle whose diameter was one body length BL ; at zero BL [ 0BL ; i.

Cuttlefish continued to respond to 3D visual cues from a greater distance than to a horizontal or vertical stimulus. It appears that background matching is chosen when visual cues are relevant only in the immediate benthic surroundings. However, for masquerade, objects located multiple body lengths away remained relevant for choice of camouflage. First descriptions of dicyemid mesozoans Dicyemida: Dicyemidae from Australian octopus Octopodidae and cuttlefish Sepiidae , including a new record of Dicyemennea in Australian waters.

Three new species of dicyemid mesozoans are described for the first time from Australian octopus and cuttlefish species. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. Vincent, South Australia, Australia and represents the first description of a species of Dicyemennea Whitman, from Australian waters. Dicyema papuceum sp. The vermiform stages are characterised by having peripheral cells, and a disc-shaped, flower-like calotte in larger individuals. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens.

Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. The vermiform stages are characterised by having peripheral cells and a relatively small, cap-shaped calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were occasionally observed in nematogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; two nuclei are present in each urn cell. Dicyema furuyi sp. The vermiform stages are characterised by having peripheral cells and an elongate calotte. Three secondary nematogens were also observed in the right renal appendages of two host individuals, confirming the occurrence of this form.

In metazoans, there is a remarkable diversity of photosensitive structures; their shapes, physiology, optical properties, and development are different. To approach the evolution of photosensitive structures and visual function, cephalopods are particularly interesting organisms due to their most highly centralized nervous system and their camerular eyes which constitute a convergence with those of vertebrates. The eye morphogenesis in numerous metazoans is controlled mainly by a conserved Retinal Determination Gene Network RDGN including pax, six, eya , and dac playing also key developmental roles in non-retinal structures and tissues of vertebrates and Drosophila.

We compare that with the already shown expressions in eye development of Sof-otx and Sof-pax genes. Rhodopsin is the pigment responsible for light sensitivity in metazoan, which correlate to correlate visual function and eye development. We studied Sof-rhodopsin expression during retina differentiation. By in situ hybridization, we show that 1 all of the RDGN genes, including Sof-pax6 , are expressed in the eye area during the early developmental stages but they are not expressed in the retina, unlike Sof-otx , which could have a role in retina differentiation; 2 Sof-rhodopsin is expressed in the retina just before vision gets functional, from stage 23 to hatching.

However, the gene network involved in the retinal photoreceptor differentiation remains to be determined. Moreover, for the first time, Sof-rhodopsin expression is shown in the embryonic retina of cuttlefish suggesting the evolutionary conservation of the role of rhodopsin in visual phototransduction within metazoans. These findings are correlated with the physiological and. Full Text Available In metazoans, there is a remarkable diversity of photosensitive structures; their shapes, physiology, optical properties, and development are different. The eye morphogenesis in numerous metazoans is controlled mainly by a conserved Retinal Determination Gene Network RDGN including pax, six, eya, and dac playing also key developmental roles in non-retinal structures and tissues of vertebrates and Drosophila.

By in situ hybridization, we show that 1 all of the RDGN genes, including Sof-pax6, are expressed in the eye area during the early developmental stages but they are not expressed in the retina, unlike Sof-otx, which could have a role in retina differentiation; 2 Sof-rhodopsin is expressed in the retina just before vision gets functional, from stage 23 to hatching. These findings are correlated with the. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds.

Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by different oxidised phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid at different concentrations were investigated. Oxidised phenolic compounds were covalently attached to gelatin as. International audience; Cuttlefish are highly visual animals, a fact reflected in the large size of their eyes and visual-processing centers of their brain. Although much is known about the visual system in adult cuttlefish , few studies have investigated its development and that of visually-guided behavio Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators.

Camouflage is a widespread phenomenon throughout nature and an important antipredator tactic in natural selection. Many visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree of color matching in addition to other visual factors such as pattern, contrast, and texture.

Quantifying camouflage effectiveness in the eyes of the predator is a challenge from the perspectives of both biology and optical imaging technology. Here we take advantage of hyperspectral imaging HSI , which records full-spectrum light data, to simultaneously visualize color match and pattern match in the spectral and the spatial domains, respectively.

Cuttlefish can dynamically camouflage themselves on any natural substrate and, despite their colorblindness, produce body patterns that appear to have high-fidelity color matches to the substrate when viewed directly by humans or with RGB images. Live camouflaged cuttlefish on natural backgrounds were imaged using HSI, and subsequent spectral analysis revealed that most reflectance spectra of individual cuttlefish and substrates were similar, rendering the color match possible.

Modeling color vision of potential di- and trichromatic fish predators of cuttlefish corroborated the spectral match analysis and demonstrated that camouflaged cuttlefish show good color match as well as pattern match in the eyes of fish predators. These findings i indicate the strong potential of HSI technology to enhance studies of biological coloration and ii provide supporting evidence that cuttlefish can produce color-coordinated camouflage on natural substrates despite lacking color vision.

Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains.

SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection.

Full Text Available Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. A review of visual perception mechanisms that regulate rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish. We review recent research on the visual mechanisms of rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish.

These neurophysiologically complex marine invertebrates can camouflage themselves against almost any background, yet their ability to quickly 0. The ability of cuttlefish to change appropriately requires a visual system that can rapidly assess complex visual scenes and produce the motor responses-the neurally controlled body patterns-that achieve camouflage. Using specifically designed visual backgrounds and assessing the corresponding body patterns quantitatively, we and others have uncovered several aspects of scene variation that are important in regulating cuttlefish patterning responses.

These include spatial scale of background pattern, background intensity, background contrast, object edge properties, object contrast polarity, object depth, and the presence of 3D objects. Moreover, arm postures and skin papillae are also regulated visually for additional aspects of concealment. By integrating these visual cues, cuttlefish are able to rapidly select appropriate body patterns for concealment throughout diverse natural environments.

This sensorimotor approach of studying cuttlefish camouflage thus provides unique insights into the mechanisms of visual perception in an invertebrate image-forming eye. Sepia ink as a surrogate for colloid transport tests in porous media. We examined the suitability of the ink of Sepia officinalis as a surrogate for transport studies of microorganisms and microparticles in porous media. Sepia ink is an organic pigment consisted on a suspension of eumelanin, and that has several advantages for its use as a promising material for introducing the frugal-innovation in the fields of public health and environmental research: very low cost, non-toxic, spherical shape, moderate polydispersivity, size near large viruses, non-anomalous electrokinetic behavior, low retention in the soil, and high stability.

Electrokinetic determinations and transport experiments in quartz sand columns and soil columns were done with purified suspensions of sepia ink. Influence of ionic strength on the electrophoretic mobility of ink particles showed the typical behavior of polystyrene latex spheres. Breakthrough curve BTC and retention profile RP in quartz sand columns showed a depth dependent and blocking adsorption model with an increase in adsorption rates with the ionic strength. Partially saturated transport through undisturbed soil showed less retention than in quartz sand, and matrix exclusion was also observed.

Quantification of ink in leachate fractions by light absorbance is direct, but quantification in the soil profile with moderate to high organic matter content was rather cumbersome. We concluded that sepia ink is a suitable cheap surrogate for exploring transport of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and particulate contaminants in groundwater, and could be used for developing frugal-innovation related with the assessment of soil and aquifer filtration function, and monitoring of water filtration systems in low-income regions.

Previous investigations of How Do Colorblind Cuttlefish Achieve. Quality changes of cuttlefish stored under various atmosphere modifications and vacuum packaging. Seafood preservation and its shelf life prolongation are two of the main issues in the seafood industry. As a result, and in view of market globalization, research has been triggered in this direction by applying several techniques such as modified atmosphere packaging MAP , vacuum packaging VP and active packaging AP.

However, seafood such as octopus, cuttlefish and others have not been thoroughly investigated up to now. The aim of this research was to determine the optimal conditions of modified atmosphere under which cuttlefish storage time and consequently shelf life time could be prolonged without endangering consumer safety. Elevated CO2 levels had a strong microbiostatic effect, whereas storage under vacuum did not offer significant advantages.

All physicochemical attributes of MAP-treated samples were better preserved compared to control. Application of high CO2 atmospheres such as MAP 2 and MAP 3 proved to be an effective strategy toward preserving the characteristics and prolonging the shelf life of fresh cuttlefish and thereby improving its potential in the market. Metal-ion interactions and the structural organization of Sepia eumelanin. The structural organization of melanin granules isolated from ink sacs of Sepia officinalis was examined as a function of metal ion content by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

Exposing Sepia melanin granules to ethelenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA solution or to metal salt solutions changed the metal content in the melanin, but did not alter granular morphology. Thus ionic forces between the organic components and metal ions in melanin are not required to sustain the natural morphology once the granule is assembled. However, when aqueous suspensions of Sepia melanin granules of varying metal content are ultra-sonicated, EDTA-washed and Fe-saturated melanin samples lose material to the solution more readily than the corresponding Ca II and Mg II -loaded samples. The solubilized components are found to be 5,6-dihydroxyindolecarboxylic acid DHICA -rich constituents.

The data suggest multiply-charged ions play an important role in assisting or templating the assembly of the metal-free organic components to form the three-dimensional substructure distributed along the protein scaffold within the granule. A congenital malformation of the systemic heart complex in Sepia officinalis L. In semi-adult Sepia officinalis L. Cephalopoda from the Bay of Arcachon France a congenital malformation of the systemic heart is described by macro-and microscopical methods.

It concerns an atypical doubling of the site of insertion at the cephalic aorta at the apical ventricle. Its comparison with the paired anlagen of the systemic heart complex in normal embryogenesis and the central circulatory system of Nautilus gives rise to interpret it as a form of atavism. The possible causal role of mutagenic antifoulings is discussed.

Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin—tannic acid complex as influenced by types of interaction. The non-covalent interaction between cuttlefish skin gelatin and tannic acid was observed in gelatin modified with unoxidized tannic acid at pH 7, whereas covalent interaction was found in gelatin modified with oxidized tannic acid at pH 9. Degree of tannic acid incorporation into gelatin via. Cuttlefish skin gelatins modified with oxidized linoleic acid OLA and oxidized tannic acid OTA were characterized and determined for emulsifying properties and antioxidative activity.

Full Text Available Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates CSGHs were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties.

Investigating body patterning in aquarium-raised flamboyant cuttlefish Metasepia pfefferi. Cuttlefish are known for their ability to quickly alter their total appearance, or body pattern, to camouflage or to communicate with predators, prey and conspecifics. The body patterns of some species have been extensively documented to gain a better understanding of their behaviors. However, the flamboyant cuttlefish Metasepia pfefferi is largely unstudied. Recently, aquarists have been able to breed, house and display M. This study aimed to identify the dorsally-visible components of the body patterns used by 5 sexually-mature, freely-behaving, F5 generation M.

Furthermore, we aimed to determine the most probable patterns used by this population of animals and to create a database of components that can be used in future behavioral studies. We found that this population of M. Using maximum likelihood analysis and AutoClass IJM software, we found that these components combine to generate 11 distinct body patterns. Unusually for cuttlefish , 8 of the 11 identified patterns contained at least one "traveling" component i.

In other species, these components are generally seen during hunting or aggression, but this population of M. With few published data on the behavior of M. Full Text Available Cuttlefish are known for their ability to quickly alter their total appearance, or body pattern, to camouflage or to communicate with predators, prey and conspecifics. Lattice structural composites are of great interest to various industries where lightweight multifunctionality is important, especially aerospace.

However, strong coupling among the composition, microstructure, porous topology, and fabrication of such materials impedes conventional trial-and-error experimental development. In this work, a discontinuous carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite was adopted for structural design. A reliable and robust design approach for developing lightweight multifunctional lattice structural composites was proposed, inspired by biomimetics and based on topology optimization. Three-dimensional periodic lattice blocks were initially designed, inspired by the cuttlefish bone microstructure.

The topologies of the three-dimensional periodic blocks were further optimized by computer modeling, and the mechanical properties of the topology optimized lightweight lattice structures were characterized by computer modeling. The lattice structures with optimal performance were identified. Using cuttlefish ink as an additive to produce -non-iridescent structural colors of high color visibility.

Non-iridescent structural colors of high color visibility are produced by amorphous photonic structures, in which -natural cuttlefish ink is used as an additive to break down the long-range order of the structures. The color hue and its spectral purity can be tuned by adjusting the diameter of the polystyrene PS spheres and the proportion of ink particles.

KGaA, Weinheim. Interactive effects of size, contrast, intensity and configuration of background objects in evoking disruptive camouflage in cuttlefish. Disruptive body coloration is a primary camouflage tactic of cuttlefish. Because rapid changeable coloration of cephalopods is guided visually, we can present different visual backgrounds e. We showed previously that strength of cuttlefish disruptive patterning depends on the size, contrast, and density of discrete light elements on a homogeneous dark background.

Here we report five experiments on the interactions of these and other features. Results show that Weber contrast of light background elements is--in combination with element size--a powerful determinant of disruptive response strength.

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Furthermore, the strength of disruptive patterning decreases with increasing mean substrate intensity with other factors held constant. Interestingly, when element size, Weber contrast and mean substrate intensity are kept constant, strength of disruptive patterning depends on the configuration of clusters of small light elements. This study highlights the interactions of multiple features of natural microhabitats that directly influence which camouflage pattern a cuttlefish will choose.

Feel, smell and see in an egg: emergence of perception and learning in an immature invertebrate, the cuttlefish embryo. It is now well established that prenatal sensory experience affects development itself and has long-term consequences in terms of postnatal behavior.

This study focused on the functionality of the sensory system in cuttlefish in ovo. Embryos of stage 23, 25 and 30 received a tactile, chemical or visual stimulus. An increase of mantle contraction rhythm was taken to indicate a behavioral response to the stimulus. We clearly demonstrated that tactile and chemical systems are functional from stage 23, whereas the visual system is functional only from stage At stage 25 and 30, embryos were also exposed to a repeated light stimulus. Stage 30 embryos were capable of habituation, showing a progressive decrease in contractions across stimulations.

This process was not due to fatigue as we observed response recovery after a dishabituation tactile stimulus. This study is the first to show that cuttlefish embryos behaviorally respond to stimuli of different modalities and that the visual system is the last to become functional during embryonic development, as in vertebrate embryos. It also provides new evidence that the memory system develops in ovo in cuttlefish. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: In vitro cell culture studies. The cell culture studies were performed in vitro with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in static culture conditions.

Comparisons were made with uncoated HAp scaffold. DNA quantification and scanning electron microscopy SEM confirmed a good proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. The amount of collagen synthesis was determined using a hydroxyproline assay. The osteoblastic differentiation of the cells was evaluated by determining alkaline phosphatase ALP activity and collagen type I secretion. Furthermore, cell spreading and cell proliferation within scaffolds were observed using a fluorescence microscope. Therapeutic effect of Sepia ink extract against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in mice.

Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis IPA is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients that requires aggressive therapy. Because of the widespread use of antibiotics, corticosteroids, antitumor drugs, and immunosuppressive drugs, the morbidity of IPA is currently increasing. The ink secretion of molluscan species was identified as one of the novel sources of bioactive compounds.

So the present study designed to investigate the antifungal and antioxidant effects of Sepia officinalis ink extract against IPA in mice. The present study demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of IE against Aspergillus fumigatus. In conclusion, the results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that IE has therapeutic effect against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis via reducing oxidative stress.

Species specific isotope dilution for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine and methylmercury in cuttlefish and prawn. The reference value of 0. Cuttlefish ink is consumed as a delicacy worldwide. The current study is the first assessment of heavy metal concentrations in cuttlefish ink versus mantle under different storage methods.

A total of samples 64 of fresh mantle, 42 of frozen mantle, 64 of fresh ink, and 42 of frozen ink were analyzed for the detection of the following heavy metals: arsenic As , chromium Cr , iron Fe , lead Pb , mercury Hg , and cadmium Cd. The median As concentrations were The median Cr concentrations were 0. The median Fe concentrations were 4. The median Pb concentrations of almost all samples were below the LOQ; only two frozen ink, one fresh ink, one frozen mantle, and one fresh mantle sample exceeded the limit stipulated by the European Union. The Hg concentrations were statistically similar among the four categories of samples; the median Hg concentrations were below the LOQ, and the maximum concentrations were found in frozen ink, at 1.

The median Cd concentrations were 0. The probability of samples having a Cd concentration above the legal limit was Fresh ink had significantly lower concentrations of As, Cr, Fe, and Cd, but the concentrations of Hg and Pb were not significantly different from those of other products. Frozen ink had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Fe, but concentrations of As were lower than those in. Improvement of the compressive strength of a cuttlefish bone-derived porous hydroxyapatite scaffold via polycaprolactone coating. Cuttlefish bones CBs have emerged as attractive biomaterials because of their porous structure and components that can be converted into hydroxyapatite HAp via a hydrothermal reaction.

However, their brittleness and low strength restrict their application in bone tissue engineering. Therefore, to improve the compressive strength of the scaffold following hydrothermal conversion to a HAp form of CB CB-HAp , the scaffold was coated using a polycaprolactone PCL polymer at various concentrations. In this study, raw CB was successfully converted into HAp via a hydrothermal reaction. We then evaluated their surface properties and composition by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis.

Furthermore, an in vitro biological evaluation demonstrated that MG cells adhered well, proliferated and were able to be differentiated on the PCL-coated CB-HAp scaffold, which was noncytotoxic. These results suggest that a simple coating method is useful to improve the compressive strength of CB-HAp for bone tissue engineering applications.

An electrochemical study of natural and chemically controlled eumelanin. Full Text Available Eumelanin is the most common form of the pigment melanin in the human body, with functions including antioxidant behavior, metal chelation, and free radical scavenging. The story line presents a scenario in which specialists in a marketing department are investigating three types of makeup removers. They want to generate a short pr Hunting the Black Rhino This case study was developed to teach students the importance of understanding the behavior of wildlife, explore the difficulty in making management decisions when the public is invested in a species, and to help students develop critical thinking and Hunting the Ebola Reservoir Host This one-hour introduction to the study of infectious diseases uses recent research on the Ebola reservoir host to motivate students to consider the characteristics of a viral host species and how it can be identified.

Presented in the form of an inter The case is called a clicker case because it is designed for use w I Don't Need a Flu Shot! Ryan thinks it is too late since he just had the stomach flu, and besides, even if he did catch it I Hate Running! This interrupted worksheet case study, developed for introductory or intermediate undergraduate physiology courses, aims to eliminate misconceptions that many students have about lactate, lactic acid, and changes in the body during exercise. The case b I Heart Running: A Case Study on Tachycardia in Sam the Runner "I Heart Running" is a case study in which students diagnose the cause of exercise-induced tachycardia in an otherwise healthy, year-old female.

The patient, Sam, is a long-distance runner and realizes that her exercising heart rate reaches over I Scream for Ice Cream Lactose intolerance, caused by a lack of persistent lactase enzyme expression, is a trait commonly observed in adult humans, with varying geographic prevalence depending on dietary habits in different cultures. This case study follows a diverse group o Identical Twins, Identical Fates? This case tells the story of Elise, a college freshman whose identical twin sister has recently been diagnosed with schizophrenia.

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Elise is concerned about her own risk for developing this disease. Through her research and interactions with a physician I'm Looking Over a White-Striped Clover This case is an exploration of the process of natural selection using white clover Trifolium repens as an example. In general, two forms of white clover can be found around the world in various habitats. One type is able to produce cyanide i Impacts of Climate Change on Pinyon Pine Cone Production In this interrupted case study, students explore how changing climate may affect cone production in pinyon pine Pinus edulis.

Students begin by learning about mast seeding, a common reproductive strategy among many perennial plant species, a Improving on Nature? In , black bass were introduced into Lake Atitlan in the highlands of western Guatemala as a way to attract tourism and boost the local economy, but unforeseen complications resulted in an ecological disaster. Developed for an introductory course i In Sickness and in Health In this interrupted case study, Greg and Olga, a young couple planning a family, have decided to see a genetic counselor because of a family history of genetic disease.

Students construct a pedigree from the information presented in the case; then, on Inside the Opioid Crisis This case study follows the struggles of "James" as he copes with extreme pain resulting from an automobile accident. Unable to manage his symptoms with over-the-counter drugs, James is prescribed oxycodone but fails to strictly follow the instru Is Iron Fertilization Good for the Sea? This case study describes experiments to seed the ocean with iron to encourage algae growth. It explores how human activities contribute to greenhouse effects and global warming, proposals to potentially counteract these effects and make the ocean more This dilemma cased is based on the actual development, FDA approval, and market withdrawal of dexfenfluramine, a drug used in the late s in combination with phentermine for weight loss.

The case is set up as a mock trial, with students taking the r Is the Data Dirty or Clean? This case study challenges students to differentiate between anecdotal evidence and science-based evidence related to human health. The fir It Takes a Lot of Nerve In this two-part case study on the nervous system, students learn about neural pathways. The case scenarios are drawn from real life and require students to explain the physiological mechanisms at work. The first scenario is designed for freshmen level No, a Fish! No, a Dolphin! It is not uncommon to hear creationists argue that evolution is not science because no one saw it happen, or for students to wonder how we can know anything about the physiology or behavior of organisms that went extinct hundreds of millions of years a They take her to her pediatrician, who immediately notices that the once bright and active child is small for her age, pale, lethargic, and has a swollen abdomen.

Students examine t Students exam It's Just Stress, Right? Ellie is a struggling college student on the brink of failing her physiology course; not surprisingly, she exhibits many classic signs of stress. However, a visit to the health clinic reveals that she may be suffering from more than just stress.

It's Like Pulling Teeth In this interrupted case study, a middle-aged man is having his wisdom teeth surgically removed. He decides to have a general anesthetic, but is unaware of the reaction he will have to halothane. His skeletal muscles go rigid and his body temperature r As the clock counts down the final seconds, Greg rushes 70 yards down field until he is tackled out of bounds. When the kicking team comes out to t Jim and the Forgotten Embryos The goal of this case study is to expose students to the basics of embryonic stem cells, their therapeutic uses, and the controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells through the story of a college student, Jim Allison, who becomes paralyzed after a car Joel E.

This integrative ap Josie In this interdisciplinary case, students meet Josie, the main character, who suffers from a variety of symptoms. Students must grapple with the conflicting data presented, which ultimately leads them to a diagnosis of either porphyria or schizophrenia Just a Spider Bite? This case relates the story of two fictional college students, Kristen and Brent, who discover that they are infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Brent recovers after using an antibiotic, but Kristen does not. It is later confirmed through tes Kate-tastrophy In this interrupted case, students examine the concept of unconsciousness and develop an understanding of how clinicians diagnose death.

Developed for a freshman course in human biology, the case focuses on brain death, but raises related issues, inclu Katrina's Troubled Waters This case study explores some of the health issues brought to light during the flooding in New Orleans caused by Hurricane Katrina. The case encourages students to think about a variety of problems that can occur when humans are exposed to unsanitary f Keeping up with the Joneses This interrupted case study in cardiovascular physiology focuses on Suzie, a determined young woman who is training hard for the upcoming figure skating season. But family dynamics combined with high aspirations of competing in the Olympic Games have n Kill the Aliens: Controlling Leafy Spurge The majority of people in the world interact with nature in an urban setting.

Killing Chloroplasts This case study takes place at a fictional biotechnology company developing herbicides against invasive plant species. The case study focuses on five herbicides with different effects on photosynthesis. Students play the role of lab interns and explore King Tut's Family Secrets This "clicker case" is based on several articles published in that determined the genealogy of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun based on microsatellite DNA analysis.

The case begins with a description of the seven royal mummies found in Va Knot Your Typical Weed Japanese knotweed Fallopia japonica is an invasive plant that can be very hard to eliminate. This PowerPoint-driven case study briefly describes this plant and asks students to identify possible solutions for its control when a homeowner dis Know Your Enemy, Know Yourself This case study relates the actual experiences of a woman with breast cancer as she shares her experiences through a series of blog posts at various stages of treatment diagnosis, mastectomy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and maintenance.

This brief, interrupted case study tells the sto Lady Tasting Coffee In the s, biologist and statistician Ronald Fisher met a woman who claimed she could taste whether a cup of tea was prepared by adding milk before or after the tea. Las alas del Diablo Why are chilies so hot? This case study begins with a story about an undergraduate student who is inspired to learn about capsaicin production in chilies after losing a spicy chicken wing eating contest. The case was developed as an initial activity fo Let's Get This Course Started The first day of class is often a reading of the syllabus, even when active learning approaches are used throughout the rest of the term.

This interrupted case uses the first day to model the expectations of a course that uses case method approaches. Lewis and Clark Reloaded Frank and Joe are year-old fraternal twins who share similar interests, including cycling. The brothers decide to attempt their first long-distance bicycling trip, retracing the journey of early American explorers Lewis and Clark to the Northwest. Life on Mars This case explores the question of whether there was ever life on Mars and in doing so explores how we define life.

Through a fictionalized account of the events, the Life tables are tables of statistics that relate to life expectancy and reproductive output for a population of organisms. Students are asked to tabulate traditional life Life, The Final Frontier Designed for high school and college-level introductory biology courses, the goal of this "clicker case" is to get students to think about what it means for something to be alive by defining the characteristics of living organisms and applying these to Little Girl Lost: A Case Study on Defective Cellular Organelles This case study introduces students to the structure and function of cellular organelles and seeks to show their importance by discussing diseases and disorders that can result when an organelle does not function as it should.

The storyline follows a f Little Mito This case presents a fanciful story about the origin of the eukaryotic cell, a major milestone in the evolution of life. Living in a Genomic World This directed case study was developed in order to present genomic data to students, allow them to interpret the impact of genetic variations on phenotype, and to explore precision medicine. Students are introduced to "Josie," a college sophomore who d Living on the Edge This case study describes the daily osmotic struggle for survival faced by hummingbirds.

The narrative is written from the viewpoint of a human observer who sees an Anna's hummingbird feeding on flowers outside of her window. She notices that the In Part I, students are given patient backgrounds and results from laboratory t Lost in the Desert! Students learn about the interconnectedness of the body, with a particular focus on the skin as one of the most important homeostatic organ systems, in this case study in which the protagonist sets out on a three-hour drive across the Arizona desert to Hebrew Translation In this directed case study, translated from the original English into Hebrew, students read about a man who sets out on a three-hour drive across the Arizona desert to meet his fiancee in California but never shows up at his final destination.

Ask a Turtle This case study examines the events surrounding the hatching and migration of loggerhead sea turtles, specifically what mechanisms they use to head towards the ocean once hatched and where and how they migrate once in the ocean. The story is wr Love Potion 10 In this case study, students are asked to consider whether there is evidence to adequately support a series of scientific claims made in an advertisement for pheromones. The case teaches students about the scientific method and the process of science. Magic Bullets This clicker case was designed to teach students about basic enzyme structure, mechanisms of enzyme inhibition, and mechanisms of drug resistance.

CML is cause Making It Fit: Using Excel to Analyze Biological Systems In this case, students read about a biologist who needs to determine how to analyze age-at-length data, a common situation in fisheries biology. The fictional Dr. Latimer is tasked with fitting non-linear models to the data, and the case develops as he Mathematics in Conservation This interrupted case study teaches probability theory and transmission genetics through their application to the conservation of the endangered Florida panther.

An endangered population is unlikely to survive simply due to its small population size. MDR Tuberculosis In this case study on multi-drug resistant MDR tuberculosis, students consider ways in which to preserve health as a human right without subjecting already marginalized communities susceptible to the disease to further discrimination. Students learn Mendel Dreams In this PowerPoint-based clicker case, developed for use in either a general biology or general genetics class, students are introduced to the life and work of Gregor Mendel.

The initial slides set up the story as we see Mendel, who is ill, remin Michael's Story This interdisciplinary case study introduces us to the Greens, a family with a recently diagnosed autistic child. Autism is one of several disorders grouped within the acronym ASD, or autism spectrum disorders. Autistic children have problems with comm The Emergency Room seems busier than usual, and the cases coming in are all too similar. Everyone seems to be suffering from the same symptoms - abdominal pain, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea. Once the hospital staff identify the bacteria ca Mildred Using Plants The format for this case is unusual.

The PowerPoint of the "case" provides an in-class framework for working through all of the activities associated with the case. These activities are explained in the teaching notes. The teaching no Mini Cases on Choosing Appropriate Statistical Tests for Ecological Data This set of mini cases on the ecology of eastern cottontail rabbits is designed to give students practical experience using statistics in a scientific context. Given a dataset and experimental design, groups of students are asked to play the part of a Modern Frankenstein?

This interdisciplinary case study uses the format of a progressive disclosure to explore certain advances in biotechnology and evaluate them within the framework of societal needs, concerns and pressures. When faced with a heart valve transplant, Mom Always Liked You Best This interrupted case study is based on a journal article on the parenting behavior of American coots. Working through the case, students develop hypotheses and design experiments to test their hypotheses as they are given pieces of the case in an inte Monarchs and Milkweed This interrupted case study was written to help students understand the interplay and relatedness of metabolism in producers and consumers.

The storyline is based on a conversation between two students who are home from college for a long weekend. Monday on the Metabolic Ward This case is a variation of a longer case in our collection titled "Murder or Medical Mishap? Death on the Metabolic Ward," which has a "murder-mystery" aspect to it.

In both versions of the case, students assume the role of pre-med students part Monkey Brains This case study in comparative physiology explores the connections between physiology, evolution and behavior. Students assume the role of researchers who have discovered the body of a rare and poorly studied fictional monkey, Callicebus imagini.

More Than Just a Cough: Exploring the Role of the Cytoskeleton in Fertility This interrupted case study explores the role of cytoskeletal structures on human health, specifically on respiratory function, sperm motility, and female fertility. It follows the story of a couple struggling to conceive a child and the doctors workin More Than Meets the Eye The classic example of a human trait that behaves in a clear Mendelian fashion is human eye color. The gene that controls it exists in two forms: a dominant brown allele and a recessive blue allele.

But the genetics of eye color is more complex than ty Mother's Milk Cures Cancer? This case study on the immune system, cell cycle regulation, and cancer biology explores the role that serendipity plays in new discoveries in science, how scientific research is funded, and the personal and professional implications of unexpectedly fi Dan is participating in a clinical trial for a dru In this case study, students will be exposed to DNA sequencing to quickly identify how an outbreak of methicillin Murder by HIV? Grades Edition This case study gives students an opportunity to draw a conclusion about an actual crime that was prosecuted in Louisiana.

A physician was accused of intentionally infecting his ex-girlfriend with HIV-tainted blood drawn from a patient in his practice Undergraduate Edition This case study gives students an opportunity to draw a conclusion about an actual crime that was prosecuted in Louisiana.

Murder or Medical Mishap? In this "clicker case," students assume the role of pre-med students participating in a summer internship. As interns, they diagnose several different genetic deficiencies of glycolytic pathway enzymes based on the biochemical activity of blood samples Muscleman This case is designed to help students develop a deeper understanding of negative feedback regulation. Basic principles of negative feedback systems are illustrated by focusing on the effects of anabolic steroids on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicula Mutualism This case explores two-species interactions, especially mutualism, and presents students with a problem, namely, the inconsistent treatment of the concept of mutualism and symbiosis in many textbooks.

It begins with a question that students will probab My Brother's Keeper In this interrupted case study, students work in teams to interpret behavioral data with respect to evolutionary biology. Specifically, the case examines the behavior of alarm calling in a certain type of squirrel, Belding's ground squirrel, whic My Dog is Broken!

Cell signaling is one of the more difficult concepts for students to understand in their study of cell biology. To help students better understand the process of cell signaling, from reception to cellular response, a fairly simple signal pathway is use Mystery in Alaska This interrupted case study highlights the importance of energy considerations within food chains by examining the population decline of Steller sea lions along the western Alaskan coast. A ban on commercial fishing of pollock in the s caused a shi Nanobacteria This case study was developed for a first-semester foundations course for biology majors.

It is based on two conflicting reports in the scientific literature on the status of nanobacteria as living organisms in order to explore basic concepts related t Nature or Nurture This case explores the question of whether gender identity is determined strictly by genetics nature or social variables nurture. It is based on a true story about a man who was raised as a girl and later rejected the female gender identity. Transport Proteins on Strike!

This role-play case study teaches students about plasma membrane transport and the functions of transport proteins in the phospholipid bilayer. Students act out the parts of molecules and structures in a fantastical cellular world where the unionized t The case demonstrates the No Bats in the Belfry This interrupted case study investigates the geographic origin of white-nose syndrome WNS in little brown bats Myotis lucifugus. WNS is a devastating fungal disease caused by the fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans formerly know The balanced interplay between melanin content and UV absorption allowed populations to successfully migrate from sub-Saharan Africa by influencing Not an Old Person's Disease The overall goal of this case is to introduce students to the genetic basis of cancer while teaching them about melanoma.

The fictional protagonist of the case is year-old Judy. Fair-haired and fair-skinned, Judy covets the kind of suntan that her f Not Exactly This case study follows a young couple that is consulting with a genetic counselor about their plans to have a child. Because of their family history with cystic fibrosis, they are concerned about their chances of having a child with this genetic disea Not Just Another Day at the Beach Students read about a case of melanoma that occurred over 10 years ago and then discuss issues faced by cancer patients and their families in making difficult medical decisions.

Because the case presented is 10 years old, changes since then in the way The case is based on the idea that the domestication of the dog was not likely a In this case study, students read about a woman experiencing a side-effect of Topamax and from there move to a review of acid-base balance in the human body.

The ca The case scenario revolves around a physician scientist's analysis of One Whale or Two or …? This case study focuses on the intersection of defining a scientific species and defining a legal species. The compelling story of Lolita, an orca whale in captivity, is used to highlight the legal significance of species declaration. Students will wor Osmosis is Serious Business! Part I is centered around the effects of a hypertonic environment on plant cells, while Part II focuses on the effects of a hyp Part I is centered around the effects of a hypertonic environment on plant cells Osteoporosis This directed case study focuses on the physiology of bone homeostasis and methods of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

One of the overall purposes of the case is to show students that osteoporosis is not simply a disease that afflicts elderly Patient Zero Emerging diseases and potential pandemics make the news nearly every year. Students and everyone else may wonder where new infectious diseases come from, how scientists assess the risk of a pandemic, and how we might go about preventing one. This cas Students are asked to propose several hypotheses and experiments in an attempt to determine how PCBs are transferred globally.

This case study was written for an introductory course for biology majors who are first learning about embryonic development. The case is composed of several parts and involves a storyline about a team of researchers who find frogs and eggs in bamboo p Penicillin This case study uses the discovery and molecular structure of penicillin to teach basic chemistry concepts as they apply to biological and biologically-active molecules.

Topics covered include the elements found in living things, electronegativity and Peppered Moths and the Industrial Revolution This interrupted case study was written for students to gain a better understanding of evolutionary concepts and principles as they develop their skills in hypothesis creation, experimental design, and critical analysis of experimental assumptions. Pharmacogenetics: How Genetic Information Is Used to Treat Disease In this clicker case, two teenagers are diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia ALL , a cancer of the bone marrow where there is an abnormal overproduction of lymphocyte precursors.

The girls' reactions to treatment are very different, however, du Pharmacogenetics: Using Genetics to Treat Disease This case study investigates the applications of genetics to medicine by exploring one of the first examples of a pharmacogenetic test to enter mainstream clinical practice.

Pharmacogenetics examines how genetic variations in an individual correlate wi The case is designed to introduce introductory biology students to the H Plant Transpiration This flipped case study is formatted as a PowerPoint presentation that uses group experimentation to encourage active learning in a large science classroom. There are options for using either wet bench experimentation or an online simulation, depending Poison Ivy A longstanding belief that has it roots in Native American folklore is that the crushed leaves of jewelweed Impatiens capensis relieve the skin's allergic reaction to the toxin of poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans.

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This case was d Poor Devils Cancer is usually thought to be a disease that affects individuals. But could cancer evolve to become infectious? Prairie Garden of Troubles This "clicker case" was developed for a general biology course for non-majors.

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It focuses on prairie habitat ecology and restoration. Jim, a young ecologist, has created a reconstructed prairie in his backyard. His neighbors don't like it and they have Prayer Study In this case, students read a news article about a study of the effects of intercessory prayer on cardiac patients published in the Archives of Internal Medicine. After reading the case and discussing the questions in small groups, students ev Protein Targeting Gone Awry This case study synthesizes students' knowledge of the central dogma and cell structure by examining a rare health disorder in order to understand protein targeting and its medical consequences.

Students first identify the molecular alteration in affec By guiding students through a chronological series of historic expe Reproductive Isolation in Columbines This clicker case uses plant-pollinator interactions in columbines as a biological scenario to teach students about evolution, reproductive isolation, and angiosperm reproduction.

The case is based on an approach to evolution education called tree-thin Resistance is Futile - Or Is It? While the majority of people are prone to HIV infection, some individuals remain uninfected despite repeated exposure. This case study is based on the landmark paper by Paxton et al. Resistance Is Futile, Or is It? Response to Plant Invasion This interrupted case study provides students with an opportunity to compare and contrast methods for controlling spotted knapweed, an invasive species in the United States that has raised considerable concern in western pastures and rangeland.

Resurrection This case study examines the molecular methods that were used to reverse engineer the influenza virus strain in order to try and solve the mystery of why it was so deadly. The story starts in the s with the unsuccessful attempts to culture the It also discusses the immune evasion proteins NEF and VPU, and how anti-retroviral drugs act to stall viral replication. Finally, t Return of the Whoop! This interrupted case study outlines the history of pertussis or whooping cough, a disease that in the early s claimed the lives of more people than diphtheria, scarlet fever, and measles combined.

Whooping cough continued to afflict and kill a lar Revolt of the Fungus People This interrupted case study for the flipped classroom examines the interaction of plants and their mycorrhizal partners. The latter is one of the most widespread and vital symbiotic relationships in the world and can be seen in the videos that students Rhabdomyolysis This directed case study focuses on exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis exRML.

Students are guided though skeletal muscle cell membrane transport and calcium homeostasis. They are then asked to predict how depletion of ATP at the skeletal mus Taylor must write a report about a natural toxin while she is home from college on break. After a family dinner conversation about the latest attempt to poison a politician via a letter, Taylor decides to explore how ricin acts as a poison. Students wo Rings as Keys to the Past This flipped case study was written to provide foundational understanding of woody stem tree anatomy and to illustrate how scientific support is used to determine the age of objects made of wood, which in turn may affect an object's value.

The narrat Rough Games and the Brain In this "clicker case study," students learn about the chemical nature of protein molecules-in particular, how the constituent parts of proteins amino acids contribute to protein three-dimensional structure and folding. Several important human diseas Running Off Track This interrupted case study follows the course of Cara, a high school athlete training for the state championships in cross country.

She suffers from polycystic ovarian syndrome and her prescribed medication spironolactone greatly diminishes the acti Salamander Superpowers This case, developed for a course in human biology, provides students with a context for discussing stem cells and cloning by exploring regeneration in salamanders and the ethical as well as scientific and health-related issues of applying what scienti Salem's Secrets This case study examines the Salem witch trials that took place in Salem, Massachusetts, in the late s.

It is designed to provide students with an opportunity to analyze and critique data and help them understand the scientific method. Originally d Saving Superman Using a combination of directed case method and role-playing in which students learn about their roles using the jigsaw technique, this case study teaches about the main concepts of stem cell research and therapy and the political and ethical issues su Saving Superman: Ethics and Stem Cell Research This case explores the political and ethical issues associated with stem cell research.

Scorpion vs. Mouse This flipped clicker case study explores the fascinating relationship between the Arizona Bark Scorpion the most venomous scorpion in North America and the Southern Grasshopper Mouse. Initially it would seem that the grasshopper mouse is no match for Search for the Missing Sea Otters Using a progressive disclosure format, this case study teaches students how to apply ecological principles to a real-life ecological problem, namely, the decline in sea otter populations in Alaska. Students interpret data from graphs and tables and pra Selecting the Perfect Baby This dilemma case is based on the true story of Jack and Lisa Nash, whose daughter Molly was born with a rare genetic disorder, Fanconi anemia.

By having another child with specific genetic markers, the Nashes hoped to cure Molly using stem cells from Selection and the Blond Beach Mouse This "clicker" case study explores ultimate and proximate explanations for cryptic coloration in animals through the work of Dr. Hopi Hoekstra of Harvard University, who studies Gulf and Atlantic Coast beach populations of oldfield deer mice that have Selection on a Case by Case Basis This "clicker case" gives students an opportunity to apply their understanding of three different types of selection directional, stabilizing, and disruptive to a variety of model systems.

The case describes each type of selection in detail, presents Sex and the Komodo Dragon In this clicker case study for a flipped classroom, students familiar with the stages of meiosis work in small groups to determine the predicted genetic makeup of the parthenogenetic offspring of a Komodo dragon, based on four different types of parthe Sex and Vaccination This case study focuses on the controversy surrounding the decision by Texas Governor Rick Perry to mandate the compulsory vaccination of girls in the Texas public school system against the human papillomavirus HPV prior to entering the sixth grade.

Should Bill Buy Sammy? In this case, students are shown the relevance of chemistry in daily decision-making by taking a look at the popular dietary supplement, s-adenosylmethionine SAMe , widely used in Europe for depression, arthritis, and liver disease and now available i Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park, as a novel and then a blockbuster movie, reawakened the public's fascination with dinosaurs. Although dinosaurs have always been popular, Spielberg's sophisticated cinema computer graphics thrilled human imagi Si el Norte Fuera el Sur In this case study, students are given the task of developing a recovery plan to protect a recently discovered population of Central American squirrel monkeys on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica.

In the process they must determine whether the population Sick on a South American Sugarcane Plantation This case study familiarizes readers with a disease that affects millions of people in Central and South America while illustrating a relatively uncommon route of transmission. The narrative is based on reports of oral transmission of Trypano Sickle Cell Anemia In this case study on sickle cell anemia, students are introduced to some of the key researchers responsible for determining the molecular basis of the disease and learn about the functioning of erythrocytes as well as the notion that changes in the en Skinny Genes?

This case study introduces Megi, an active teenager who has recovered from anorexia nervosa. The method of progressive disclosure is used to take students back in time as Megi recalls the physical and psychological aspects of her illness and t Snow White Apples? House of Representatives Subcommittee as the Solving a Medical Mystery with Bioinformatics This computer-based case study guides students through publically available bioinformatics databases to solve a medical mystery. The case relates the real-life story of Dr. James Lupski, a renowned geneticist, who has a rare form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Sometimes It Is All in the Genes Nancy, five months pregnant, agrees to a routine genetic test that indicates she carries the mutation for the fatal disease, cystic fibrosis.

She convinces her husband to get tested and discovers that he too is a carrier. Knowing that there is a 25 per Speciation and the Threespine Stickleback This case study teaches students about allopatric speciation through an investigation of the benthic and limnetic sticklebacks of Paxton Lake, which are among the youngest species on Earth, diverging from each other after the Pleistocene glaciers melte Stem Cells: Promises to Keep? The case is formatted as a PowerPoint presentation 1. Super Bug Sam, a pre-med college student, routinely gets dialysis and develops a urinary tract infection.

The infection is from a bacterium that the news media is calling a "superbug" from India. Sam does some internet searches to find out more information about Sweet Beets: Making Sugar Out of Thin Air This directed case study introduces students to photosynthesis and illustrates how biology plays a vital role in the carbon cycle and the conversion of energy.

Sweet Indigestion These days it seems like everyone is counting carbs. About 24 million Americans report they have cut carbohydrates from their diet, and 44 million more say they may try a low-carb diet in the next two years. But what do people really know about carbohy Sweet Truth This case reviews concepts of monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide and contrasts the structures of different pairs of carbohydrates as well as the structure of sorbitol, a sugar substitute.

It also depicts stereo chemistry concepts such as For some time Callie has not felt well, experiencing fatigue, diffic As they set out to identify the cause of the illness, students learn about the differences between viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes in order to decide which Testing for Grazer Adaptation to Toxic Algae The intent of this interrupted case study is to present a clear example of both the scientific method and evolutionary adaptation in a model system consisting of marine grazers copepods and toxic prey phytoplankton.

Briefly, a certain toxic phytopl The Art of a Deal This case is a classroom simulation of the types of negotiations that went into the Kyoto Protocol agreement on limiting global greenhouse gas emissions. It was developed for an environmental science course for first-year college students with minimal Students enrolled in natural resource programs typically have classroom experience in science-based curricula with little exposure as to how to apply that science to real-life issues. This case study was designed to introduce students to understanding This case study explores the possible causes, effects, and treatments for CCD by focusing on a family of hon The Canadian Canola Controversy This case study reviews a controversial court case that took place in Canada in concerning an allegation of patent infringement and a genetically modified GM canola crop.

The multi-national company Monsanto, which produces GM canola seeds called The Case of Baby Joe This interrupted case study follows the declining health of an infant who suffers from recurrent infections and finally is diagnosed with severe combined immunodeficiency SCID. The case was developed for use in an undergraduate upper-level immunology Students read the story and then answer a series of questions about the genetics Students follow Eric as he is examined by his physician and then a specialist Egg Cell Number As the prosecuting attorney calls each witness to the stand and the courtroom drama unfolds, students learn about the stages of mitosis and meiosi The Case of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker Based on the disputed rediscovery of the ivory-billed woodpecker in April , this interrupted case study tells the story of a fictional character, "Brad Murky," a student and research assistant who must decide whether the current evidence is suffici He was taken to a hospital, where he stayed for three days befor The Case of the Malfunctioning Neuron This flipped case study tells the story of Joyce, a biology student who notices the development of some unusual symptoms foot slapping and slurred speech in her mother.

In an effort to understand the cause, Joyce views a documentary-style trigger vid A number of causes have been suggested for this phenomenon, including the consumption of high fructose corn syrup HFCS by the be The Case of the Tainted Taco Shells: General Edition This case discusses some of the issues associated with the use of genetically modified plants, including ecological risks, resistance, and allergenicity. The case has two versions, or editions. This edition the "General Edition" emphasizes the The Challenge of Epilepsy This case study was originally developed for undergraduate science students as part of an extracurricular competition, but it could also be delivered as a directed case.

Accordingly two versions of the activity are included. Each version requires stude The Curious Case of the Carbon Copy Kitty After the media coverage of Dolly the sheep and pet cloning, most students in a general biology or general genetics course will have heard of animal cloning, but it is also common for them to hold a number of misconceptions about the science of mammali The Dangers of Deicing Loss of species richness is often due to anthropogenic activity.

The global decline of amphibians is one such example. This case study examines the impact of road deicing agents on amphibians living near bridges and roads treated heavily with salt duri The Death of Baby Pierre This directed case study on a genetic disorder was developed for an exam on genetics for a general biology course. The Deep This case study presents a fictional story in a realistic setting to teach aspects of human cardiovascular and respiratory physiology as they pertain to decompression sickness and its treatment options.

Specifically, students learn about the partial pr The Ebola Wars: Advanced Edition This case study was written for upper level undergraduate and graduate students to review foundational aspects of virology and to examine Ebola virus infection in detail.

Terry is a college student who travels to a West African clinic for the summer as The Ebola Wars: General Edition This case study introduces students to viruses and is suitable for a general biology course. Terry is a college student who travels to a West African clinic for the summer as a volunteer. While abroad, Terry comes into contact with a patient infected w The Ebola Wars: Mission Immune Evasion Through a unique anthropomorphic view and the integration of game-based learning, this case study explores how the Ebola virus can evade the immune response.

In working through the case, students are challenged to examine the first, second and third li The Ecological Footprint Dilemma Is it better to have a new parking lot on campus or use that space to develop a community garden? This is the issue presented in this "clicker case," which pulls students into the decision-making process. Students learn about concepts related to susta This integrative approach employs both problem-based learning techniques and directed questions as students move through a ser Students read about the claims and actions of proponents of Intelligent Design as they work for its inclusion in the high school science cu The Evolution of Human Skin Color While the concept of evolution by natural selection is very simple, it is often misunderstood by students.

This is partly due to preconceptions they have as well as a lack of understanding or emphasis on the idea that reproductive success and not surv The Evolving Genetics of Disease Resistance This interrupted case study for the flipped classroom applies evolutionary genetics research to human health. The Fish Kill Mystery In this case study, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities, and learn about the complex life cycle of th The Fun in Fermentation When covering the process of cellular respiration, advanced high school and undergraduate biology classes present fermentation as a means of anaerobic energy production in certain organisms and in muscle metabolism.

Although most biology textbooks cove The Galapagos Using problem-based learning and role-playing, students analyze the geological origins of the Galapagos Islands, their colonization, species formation, and threats to their biodiversity in this story of a graduate student caught between local fisherme The Hunger Pains In this interrupted case study, good friends Sara and Mallory discuss Sara's recent healthy weight loss and her difficulty in maintaining her desired weight.

Sara recently heard about a hormone, ghrelin, and wonders if that chemical may have something The Interview: Hemoglobin vs. Myoglobin This case study examines the structure of hemoglobin and myoglobin and how the structure of these molecules dictates their function. The case is written as a play in which several candidates have responded to a help wanted ad seeking an employee with a The Lady of Charleston?

This case uses the real story of Dawn Langley Simmons, who may have been misidentified as male at birth, to illustrate the developmental basis of human sexual dimorphism and how gender misidentification may occur. Students also consider the emotional, The stand held significant historical and cultural significance, particularly to the local first-natio The Medicinal Use of Marijuana Whether marijuana should be legalized for medicinal purposes has been contested for decades.

We owe our more extended lives in part to better hygiene, medicines, and more plentiful foods. Yet some people aspire to return to that earlier Introductory Version This case explores both the evidence and inconsistencies in the two major hypotheses for the origins of life on Earth: Replication-First or Metabolism-First. The case has two versions published on this website - one is written at the introductory level Images of this key molecule are as iconic as those of the Mona Lisa, and identifying its structure has proven to be as intriguing a mystery for scientists as the reason behind Mo The Mystery of the Seven Deaths In this interrupted case study, students learn about the function of cellular respiration and the electron transport chain and what happens when that function is impaired.

The case is loosely based on the real-life Chicago Tylenol murders where se The Path of a Pathogen Scientists and healthcare professionals initially exhibited little concern over the Zika virus even after evidence of human infection was first identified in ; Zika appeared to be both rare and unassociated with morbidity or mortality. Around The Perilous Plight of the Pika This interrupted case study addresses several concepts related to climate change and its effect on the American pika.

Often called an indicator species for climate change, the pika has a unique set of variables specific to its environment. Factors such The Petition: A Global Warming Case The goal of this dilemma case study is to teach students about global climate change. The setting is a faculty meeting where the discussion has turned to a petition circulating in the scientific community against signing the Kyoto Treaty. The report shows a negative result for variants of the BRCA 1 and The Power of Communication This directed case study begins with an intentionally ambiguous story: Q suddenly realizes that it is time to relay a message to Z another inhabitant of their home to let Z know that it's time to produce some items and send them on to accomplices in The Purple Pill This interrupted case study is designed to teach students about chirality and the pH scale in the context of medicinal chemistry.

Students read about a college student who wakes in the middle of the night with chest pains. Upon examination in the emerg The Raelians The topics of human cloning and pseudoscience are introduced in this case through the story of Claude Vorilhon, a French auto racing journalist who makes some unusual claims regarding the influence of extraterrestrials on human history and purpose. The Return of Canis lupus?

Although gray wolves once freely roamed North America, the gradual loss of their habitat from westward expansion and extermination programs led to their demise in the early 20th century. Many argue that predators such as wolves benefit a functioning ec The Rocky Mountain Locust This case explores conservation and social issues associated with the destruction of vast tracts of farmland in the Great Plains in the late s caused by massive swarms of the Rocky Mountain Locust, Melanoplus spretus.

The case was develope After spending seventeen years in prison for something he didn't do, Earl was released in after his innocence was proven through the use The Secret of Popcorn Popping Focusing on the important role of water in living cellular chemistry, this case emphasizes the general solubility rule, "like dissolves like," which explains how water can serve as a medium for transporting the cell's soluble nutrients and wastes.

The Soccer Mom Phyllis Jackson has fainted on the soccer field. She thinks she is just dehydrated, but her husband is worried. He has noticed that she has been having difficulty concentrating at work and is forgetful at times at home. At his suggestion, Phyllis goes The Soccer Mom: Hebrew Translation In this case study, translated from the original English into Hebrew, students read and interpret the signs and symptoms of a woman suffering from a neurological disorder and make a diagnosis.

The case was developed for use in a one-semester animal phy The Sound of DNA The steps involved in transcription and translation can be difficult for students to comprehend. Relating popular culture references such as song titles to protein sequences can help students understand the conversion of DNA and RNA information to pr The Spark of Life In biology classes, students are typically taught that spontaneous generation does not take place.

And yet, at the origin of life, life had to arise without parents from abiotic processes. What were those processes that gave rise to the first life? In the process, they learn to distinguish The Unfortunate Nurse Dengue pronounced "deng-ee" is a viral disease transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito, usually Aedes aegypti.

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There is conc The Waiting Game In this interrupted case study, students examine the cooperative courtship behavior of long-tailed manakins. Males of the long-tailed form leks, areas in which males display for females in groups. Leks in this species consist of two to 11 males, with t Five generations of the Gomez family suffer from a very rare disease The Write Weight Kasey is a busy undergraduate student who is struggling with her body image and wants to lose weight.

To aid in this process, Kasey keeps a food and activity journal. Students review Kasey's food and exercise choices, calculate Kasey's daily caloric in This PowerPoint clicker case explores this controversial question as students consider the evidence for Jefferson as the father of Eston Hemings, as Threats to Biodiversity In this case study, students learn about introduced species and how they pose a threat to biodiversity by analyzing the impact of introduced species on the native bird populations of the Hawaiian Islands.

Developed for an introductory biology course, t Three Cases from the Membrane Files This PowerPoint-driven case study presents three different stories, each of which explores an aspect of membranes. The first The Exploding Fish covers diffusion, specifically addressing the question of why animal cells explode in freshwater but fish Thyroid Troubles In this interrupted case study, students shadow an endocrinologist as she tries to determine what is wrong with Angela Barber. Angela is a middle-aged woman presenting with symptoms suggestive of a thyroid issue.

Students are given background informati To List or Not to List? The federal governments in Canada and the United States have adopted vastly different positions regarding the conservation status of the greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus. This international issue provides students an opportunity To Spray or Not to Spray In this case study, students grapple with the complex issues surrounding the use of DDT to control malaria in the developing world. To the Bitter End This interrupted case dramatizes the discovery of a Mendelian trait in humans, namely the variation in the ability to taste the chemical phenylthiocarbamide PTC.

By examining data and questions related to this trait, students will draw connections be To Vaccinate, or Not to Vaccinate The case was prompted by a newspaper story about a couple who refused on religious grounds to have their son vaccinated even though vaccination is a requirement for admission to the public schools. It explores the issues surrounding the necessity and c Too Many B Cells Taylor's doctor notices she has swollen lymph nodes and an elevated white blood cell count on her routine annual exam and asks her to return for a follow-up flow cytometry test to rule out chronic lymphocytic leukemia CLL.

Students follow along as Ta Too Many Deer! A town meeting is the setting for this case study in which students explore the topics of overpopulation, bioethics, and management of urban wildlife. The case makes use of role playing, small group discussion, interrupted case techniques, and critical Tougher Plants This "clicker case" follows two recent college graduates as they look for scientific answers to explain why the plants on their new tomato farm are not doing well.

Working with their agricultural extension agent, they explore the scientific literature Toxic Circumstances This interrupted case study tells the true story of Karl P. Schmidt, a herpetologist and museum curator who was bitten by a venomous snake in Like a true scientist, Schmidt recorded notes about his symptoms until the very end when he died.