Under usual circumstances I would quote from the W. Jones and H. Ormerod edition , which, being out of copyright, is freely available at The Perseus Digital Library. In this case, however, I found their translation to be unnecessarily prudish, and have therefore quoted from the comparatively faithful translation of Peter Levi . The sacred chickens of Rome in their coop from an engraving of military insignia and instruments of war by Nicolas Beatrizet.
The full engraving is found at Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae, [ Image no. In ancient Roman times, a roost of prophetic chickens was habitually consulted by eminent statesmen on matters of the utmost importance. While the very notion might strike the modern reader as being almost comical, to the Romans the sacred chickens were no laughing matter. During the First Punic War, Publius Claudius Pulcher turned to the sacred chickens for approval of his plan to launch a surprise attack on the Carthaginian fleet at the harbour of Drepana.
The naval battle which ensued saw the near annihilation of the Roman fleet. A humiliated Pulcher returned to Rome in the aftermath of the disastrous engagement whereupon he was tried on the charge of impiety. What happened next is unclear but it seems that he was either convicted and sentenced to exile , or acquitted when the proceedings were adjourned due to a sudden shower of rain and the authorities decided not to bother starting it all over again . Whatever the outcome, Pulcher evidently died soon afterwards. On another occasion the sacred chickens ran off into the woods just as Gaius Hostilius Mancinus was preparing to consult them about his upcoming campaign against the Numantians.
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The chickens were searched for high and low, but they were never found. As for Mancinus, he suffered a decisive military defeat at the hands of the Numantines, was compelled to accepted the terms of their peace treaty, and returned to Rome to face a trial by the Senate. The Conscript Fathers refused to ratify the treaty and decided instead for Mancinus to be handed over stark naked to the Numantines.
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This was arranged but the Numantines refused to accept the wretch [5, 6]. It would take socialism two thousand years to recover from what happened next. All this was set into motion when Gracchus stubbed his toe very badly on his way out the door to speak at the assembly about his proposed land redistribution legislation. Matters only got worse from there. Gracchus was straightaway assailed by a trio of crows that knocked a roof-tile down in front of his feet as they flew away in a mad frenzy. In the mayhem that followed, the champion of the people was beaten to death with a wooden club and dumped into the Tiber .
So much for socialism in the Roman Republic. Fortunately for Bernie Sanders, the ruling elites in America have other more humane mechanisms set in place to prevent troublemaking misfits like him from ever coming to power. All this is to say that the chickens of those times commanded the respect of the people.
It is difficult to imagine a world in which chickens were appreciated for reasons that go beyond being a ready source of meat. But the relationship between people and domestic animals in ancient times was very different from that of our own. Across the ancient world, if one wanted to eat meat, one could only do so within a sacrificial context. The institution of the temple complex ensured that animal life was held sacred. Consider modern chickens who live in abject misery on factory farms until it comes time to be unceremoniously processed and consumed by the people of the developed world.
And while chickens may have it worst of all, cows and pigs fare scarcely any better, if at all. The global civilisation to which we belong has by now surpassed all the achievements of ancient world with one glaring exception: the treatment of domestic animals. This especially holds true of chickens.
But if we are ever to meet their moral standard on a societal scale, it ought not to be on account of the same primitive superstitions. While this is cause for optimism, the biggest obstacle for the advancement of animal rights is, I think, that we tend to either rationalise our actions that violate the ethical principles we espouse, or at least place a cognitive dissonance between them.
Meat is simply too delicious for the majority of us to forgo. The saintly turn to veganism, but this monastic resolution, while admirable, cannot be expected to spread across a sizeable proportion of the population.
Hymn to Aphrodite
The best hope as I see it rests in the large-scale production of synthetic meat. It is only then that we will come as a society to perceive clearly the evils of industrial meat production, however their synthetic competitors have not yet perfected their craft.
My cousin Jimmy worked at a chicken processing plant somewhere in Nova Scotia, Canada one summer back in the s. He was afterwards made to put on big rubber gloves and go back to pluck off any partially severed heads. He works as an accountant nowadays, I think. On the contrary, chickens are the single most idiotic vertebrate with which I have had any firsthand interaction. In addition to my own personal experiences, a certain schoolteacher who once raised a roost of chickens for his class told me that they need to be kept in their coop during times of rain, because otherwise they will stare up at the sky with open beaks and drown from the falling raindrops.
I have taken the liberty to include quotations from the book below, as there is at present no English translation of Valerius Maximus available freely online. Quote ids refer to the location of the passages in the text. For example, the id 1. Footnote enumeration is the same as in Walker. He was placed at the mercy of the angered people, and it was believed that there was no way he could escape his inevitable punishment, but by virtue of a sudden shower of rain he was saved from a conviction. The hearing was disrupted, and they decided not to start it all over again, since the gods seemed to have obstructed it.
So a storm at sea had forced him to plead his case, and a storm from heaven had brought him an acquittal. He had thrown the sacred chickens into the sea and then lost most of the Roman fleet see 1. Footnote The aediles of the plebs fined Claudia for the misanthropic statement in BC.
As this consul was about to go off to Spain, the following prodigies occurred . He wanted to make a sacrifice at Lavinium, but when the sacred chickens were released from their cage, they ran off into nearby woods, and althought they were searched for with the greatest diligence, they could not be found . So the number of these prodigies equalled the number of his disasters: and unfortunate battle, a shameful peace treaty, and a deplorable handover . Footnote Lavinium was near the coast of Latium. Footnote The Port of Hercules is now called Monaco.
Footnote The Senate refused to ratify his peace treaty and handed him over to the Numantines in BC. When he went on obstinantly, he soon knocked his foot outside the door so badly that he broke a joint. Then three crows flew in his face with ill-omened claws, started fighting among themselves, and in doing so knocked a tile down before his feet. When he consulted the gods on the Capitol he rceived similar auspices. He had behaved badly as a tribune, so he was killed by Scipio Nasica: first he was struck with a piece of a bench, then he was killed with a wooden club.
The plebeian aedile, Lucretius, ordered that his body, and all the bodies of those who were killed with him, be left unburied and thrown into the Tiber. This conservative politician was also the chief pontiff from BC until his death in BC. The plebian aedile for BC was Lucretius Vespillo. Read this passage at the Perseus Digital Library. Let it be known to all the swingers out there: King Candaules was no Candaulist. My swinger friends, read on. Imagine you are the queen of Lydia.
It is late and you are about to disrobe before your king in the privacy of his royal bedchamber. The monarch is reposing on a sumptuous bed that is perfumed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon. His eyes keep fixated on you as you move toward a chair situated near the doorway of the room. You stand motionless for a time, as is your custom, soaking in your exquisite surroundings through the flickering candlelight.
He clutches giddily at a plush cushion with trembling hands. It is time. You pull the ivory pin fastening your hair, shake out your dark-brown curls, and proceed to slip out from your finely embroidered robe and place it on the chair. In captivating fashion you let drop your undergarments one after another around you. There you stand before your adoring husband with your youthful form revealed in all its beauty.
But just then, all of a sudden, a strange sense of being watched creeps over you. You cast a furtive glance toward the doorway, instantly recognising the voyeur peering back at you from the shadows. The interloper gasps. A panicky utterance from the king cannot mask the ensuing patter of feet followed by an awful clatter down the stairs. As a succession of muted groans reverberate into the night, you are faced with the infuriating realisation that the king was behind the entire plot.
In the awkward silence that follows you a confront the king, b cover yourself and scream for the royal guards, or c say it was probably just the cat and handle it in the morning.
If your name is Queen Nyssia, the voyeur is Gyges, and Candaules is king, then you will choose option c and handle it in the morning. This at any rate is the story as it is related by Herodotus. That is apart from Gyges toppling headlong down the royal staircase, which is an elaboration on the series of events of my own invention see Footnote 1. This Candaules, then, fell in love with his own wife, so much so that he believed her to be by far the most beautiful woman in the world; and believing this, he praised her beauty beyond measure to Gyges son of Dascylus, who was his favorite among his bodyguard; for it was to Gyges that he entrusted all his most important secrets.
Nyssia, having surmised all of this, sent for Gyges at dawn the next morning and presented him with a choice: either commit suicide at once as retribution for his transgression or murder Candaules and usurp the throne with her as his wife. Gyges pleaded with Nyssia to reconsider, but he soon found this to be a hopeless cause, and reluctantly agreed to kill his master.
They murdered Candaules in his bed on the very next night. After being named king, Gyges legitimised his hold on power, which was still precarious, by securing a favourable declaration from a Delphic oracle. The prophecy proved true, but by that time Gyges was dead. In recognition of the oracular endorsement, Gyges had a hoard of gold and silver sent to the shrine at Delphi.
The delivery included, we are told, six golden mixing-bowls that weighed nearly kg when taken all together see Footnote 2. No further details on the life of Nyssia are recorded. Modern scholarly opinion has Herodotus drawing on dramatic rather than historical sources, and it has been speculated that his story is based on a tragedy in five acts with three actors and a chorus . Many alternative versions of the story circulated in antiquity. In this telling, Gyges is made to be a common shepherd who discovers a ring of invisibility while out pasturing his flocks.
With the fear of being apprehended and punished for immoral behaviour removed, the once loyal subject, conspires with Nyssia to murder Candaules and takes the throne for himself. Various oddities surrounding the discovery of the ring that I have omitted are summarised by James Adam ; for the other versions of the story see Wikipedia . As for Candaules, his legacy is wrongly coloured by an association with the eponymous sexual practice of Candaulism.
The term was coined by the 19th century psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing to describe the practice in which a man reveals his female partner, or images of her, to others for their voyeuristic delight. Babylonian astrology associated the planet Venus with Ishtar. This presumably follows a yet earlier Sumerian tradition identifying Inanna with the planet Venus. This identification is later than the archaic period of "Orientalization".
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In native Greek tradition, the planet had two names, Hesperos as the evening star and Eosphoros as the morning star. The Ancient Greeks and Romans often equated their deities with foreign ones in a process known as interpretatio graeca. Template:Citation needed. Janda etymologizes her name as "she who rises from the foam [of the ocean]" and points to Hediod's account of Aphrodite's birth as an archaic reflex of Indo-European myth. Aphrodite rising out of the waters after Cronus defeats Uranus as a mytheme would then be directly cognate to the Rigvedic myth of Indra defeating Vrtra , liberating Ushas.
Roman Venus was in origin a genuinely Italic reflex of the dawn goddess besides Aurora , but she became identified with Aphrodite at such an early time that it is now difficult to recover elements of her native cult. By the late 5th century BC, philosophers might separate Aphrodite into two separate goddesses, not individuated in cult: Aphrodite Ourania , born from the sea foam after Cronus castrated Uranus, and Aphrodite Pandemos , the common Aphrodite "of all the folk," born from Zeus and Dione.
The representation of Aphrodite Ourania, with a foot resting on a tortoise, was read later as emblematic of discretion in conjugal love; the image is credited to Phidias , in a chryselephantine sculpture made for Elis , of which we have only a passing remark by Pausanias. Thus, according to the character Pausanias in Plato 's Symposium ,  Aphrodite is two goddesses, one older the other younger.
Pandemos is the common Aphrodite. The speech of Pausanias distinguishes two manifestations of Aphrodite, represented by the two stories: Aphrodite Ourania "heavenly" Aphrodite , and Aphrodite Pandemos "Common" Aphrodite. The epithet Aphrodite Acidalia was occasionally added to her name, after the spring she used to bathe in, located in Boeotia Virgil I, She was also called Kypris or Cytherea after her birth-places in Cyprus and Cythera , respectively, both centers of her cult.
She was associated with Hesperia and frequently accompanied by the Oreads , nymphs of the mountains. Her festival, Aphrodisia , was celebrated across Greece but particularly in Athens and Corinth. At the temple of Aphrodite on the summit of Acrocorinth before the Roman destruction of the city in BC intercourse with her priestesses was considered a method of worshiping Aphrodite. This temple was not rebuilt when the city was reestablished under Roman rule in 44 BC, but it is likely that the fertility rituals continued in the main city near the agora.
Aphrodite was associated with, and often depicted with, the sea, dolphins, doves, swans, pomegranates , sceptres, apples, myrtle , rose trees, lime trees, clams, scallop shells, and pearls. The euphemism in Greek is hierodule , "sacred servant. Aphrodite is everywhere the patroness of the hetaira and courtesan. In Ionia on the coast of Asia Minor, hierodules served in the temple of Artemis. The practice however is not attested in Athens and can be considered a foreign import. Thus Aphrodite is of an older generation than Zeus. Aphrodite herself was sometimes referred to as "Dione. In Homer, Aphrodite, venturing into battle to protect her son, Aeneas , is wounded by Diomedes and returns to her mother, to sink down at her knee and be comforted.
Aphrodite's chief center of worship remained at Paphos , on the south-western coast of Cyprus, where the goddess of desire had been worshipped from the early Iron Age as Ishtar and Ashtaroth. It was said that, as Kythereia , she first tentatively came ashore at Cythera ,  a stopping place for trade and culture between Crete and the Peloponesus. Thus perhaps we have hints of the track of Aphrodite's original cult from the Levant to mainland Greece. In other tales, Aphrodite was a daughter of Thalassa and Zeus.
Aphrodite had no childhood: in every image and each reference she is born as an adult, nubile, and infinitely desirable. Aphrodite, in many of the late anecdotal myths involving her, is characterized as vain, ill-tempered and easily offended. Though she is one of the few gods of the Greek Pantheon to be actually married, she is frequently unfaithful to her husband.
Hephaestus is one of the most even-tempered of the Hellenic deities; in the narrative embedded in the Odyssey Aphrodite seems to prefer Ares , the volatile god of war, as she was attracted to his violent nature. She is one of a few characters who played a major part in the original cause of the Trojan War itself: not only did she offer Helen of Troy to Paris , but the abduction was accomplished when Paris, seeing Helen for the first time, was inflamed with desire to have her—which is Aphrodite's realm.
Due to her immense beauty, Zeus was frightened that she would be the cause of violence between the other gods. He married her off to Hephaestus , the dour, humorless god of smithing. In another version of this story, Hera , Hephaestus' mother, had cast him off Olympus; deeming him ugly and deformed. His revenge was to trap her in a magic throne, and then to demand Aphrodite's hand in return for Hera's release.
Hephaestus was overjoyed at being married to the goddess of beauty and forged her beautiful jewelry, including the cestus, a girdle that made her even more irresistible to men. Her unhappiness with her marriage caused Aphrodite to seek out companionship from others, most frequently Ares , but also Adonis. Aphrodite figures as a secondary character in the Tale of Eros and Psyche, which first appeared as a digressive story told by an old woman in Lucius Apuleius ' novel, The Golden Ass , written in the second century A.
In it Aphrodite was jealous of the beauty of a mortal woman named Psyche. She asked Eros to use his golden arrows to cause Psyche to fall in love with the ugliest man on earth. Eros agreed, but then fell in love with Psyche on his own, by accidentally pricking himself with a golden arrow. Meanwhile, Psyche's parents were anxious that their daughter remained unmarried. They consulted an oracle who told them she was destined for no mortal lover, but a creature that lived on top of a particular mountain, that even the gods themselves feared.
Eros had arranged for the oracle to say this.
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Psyche was resigned to her fate and climbed to the top of the mountain. She told the townsfolk that followed her to leave and let her face her fate on her own. There, Zephyrus , the west wind, gently floated her downwards. She entered a cave on the appointed mountain, surprised to find it full of jewelry and finery. Eros visited her every night in the cave and they made passionate love; he demanded only that she never light any lamps because he did not want her to know who he was having wings made him distinctive. Her two sisters, jealous of Psyche, convinced her that her husband was a monster, and she should strike him with a dagger.
So one night she lit a lamp, but recognizing Eros instantly, she dropped her dagger. Oil spilled from the lamp onto his shoulder, awaking him, and he fled, saying "Love cannot live where there is no trust! When Psyche told her two jealous elder sisters what had happened, they rejoiced secretly and each separately walked to the top of the mountain and did as Psyche described her entry to the cave, hoping Eros would pick them instead. Eros was still heart broken and did not pick them and they fell to their deaths at the base of the mountain.
Psyche searched for her love across much of Greece, finally stumbling into a temple to Demeter , where the floor was covered with piles of mixed grains. She started sorting the grains into organized piles and, when she finished, Demeter spoke to her, telling her that the best way to find Eros was to find his mother, Aphrodite, and earn her blessing. Psyche found a temple to Aphrodite and entered it. Aphrodite assigned her a similar task to Demeter's temple, but gave her an impossible deadline to finish it by. Eros intervened, for he still loved her, and caused some ants to organize the grains for her.
Aphrodite was outraged at her success and told her to go to a field where deadly golden sheep grazed and get some golden wool. Psyche went to the field and saw the sheep but was stopped by a river-god, whose river she had to cross to enter the field. He told her the sheep were mean and vicious and would kill her, but if she waited until noontime, the sheep would go into the shade on the other side of the field and sleep; she could pick the wool that stuck to the branches and bark of the trees.
Psyche did so and Aphrodite was even more outraged at her survival and success. Finally, Aphrodite claimed that the stress of caring for her son, depressed and ill as a result of Psyche's unfaithfulness, had caused her to lose some of her beauty. Psyche was to go to Hades and ask Persephone , the queen of the underworld, for a bit of her beauty in a black box that Aphrodite gave to Psyche.
Psyche walked to a tower, deciding that the quickest way to the underworld would be to die. A voice stopped her at the last moment and told her a route that would allow her to enter and return still living, as well as telling her how to pass the three-headed dog Cerberus , Charon and the other dangers of the route. She was to not lend a hand to anyone in need.
She baked two barley cakes for Cerberus, and took two coins for Charon. She pacified Cerberus with the barley cake and paid Charon to take her to Hades. Before figuring this out my links would sometimes work and sometimes not and my formatting would change all over the place once I went to the TOC and then followed a link back out into the book.
Why making that one change made a difference I don't know but it did for me. I was able to add links to my other books in the back of the ebooks as well as external links to my various websites. In testing these on the various machines I have the links all worked fine. I should note that I put my Table of Contents and these link pages at the back of my book so as to give people downloading a sample more to read to see if they wanted to purchase my book or not.
The artwork inside and for the cover I created myself since I am an artist and have been self publishing and binding my own books for years. To do this I saved my html preview file to my computer and made another new folder I called email book and dropped the html file I downloaded into this new folder then zipped it and this is what I emailed to myself.
If I didn't all I would get is an image of my email stationary with no book file. I would email the zipped folder to myself click on the link and save the kindle version that came back. Plugged my Kindle into my USB port dragged this file over and was able to see exactly what my book would look like. I tried to figure out a way to test my book on my iPhone and iPad before publishing but could not figure out how to do so after many tries. I ended up purchasing a copy of each book after I published it in order to see what the images looked like in color and I have to admit they look much better on the color iPad then on the Kindle screen.
I was happy to see that the books look great on the Kindle DX, iPhone, iPad, desktop windows Kindle program, and a netbook. I have not been able to see it on a small kindle but am hoping the phone is similiar enough that there are no hidden quirks popping up for readers. I hope this info wasn't too boring for you all and that it might even help someone else; as for me it's on to my next Series "The Traveling Pugs" full length novels with less images but way more words and I am going to attempt Drop Caps at the beginning of Chapters.
Good stuff, thanks. What's PF32, a text editor? You linked to a book in the Amazon store, and it worked from the Kindle reader itself? If so, this is huge. Tell me more! I absolutely agree with your pleasure at seeing the color on the various Kindle apps, if not on the Kindle itself. Accedi per rispondere. Sorry and yes PFE32 is a basic html editor very simple doesn't add any extra stuff you don't want etc.
I use it to work on secure shopping cart codes for my website since so many programs add stuff you don't want to the lines of code they make the cart "drop" and thereby not work properly.