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The Society encourages philosophical diversity. Members represent a wide variety of perspectives: analytic and linguistic analysis, artificial intelligence theory, direct realism, cognitive science, feminism, Marxism, cultural materialism, naturalism, neurological studies, pragmatism, post-colonial theory, semiotic, and other contemporary approaches, as well as the full range of phenomenological opinion. Only questions of media theory and practice are constant in SPM activities and publications. Media covered in the past include but are not limited to apparatuses of all analogue media, augmented reality, dance, all digital media, Internet, manuscripts, print books, magazines, newspapers , radio, reading, stage drama, TV, writing.

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Glimpse , the annual SPM publication, is a blind, peer-reviewed journal. Both may be found at the Philosophical Documentation Center :. SPM is a non-profit international society.


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Acceptance to an SPM conference is by invitation by a peer-review host committee. SPM Conferences are as much about listening as speaking, questioning as answering. Home Books Series or Disciplines Phenomenology. Phenomenology The Zeta Series in Phenomenology is devoted to phenomenology as a living tradition of inquiry. Position Name Price.

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Show 15 9 15 30 All per page. Items 31 to 45 of 52 total Page: 1 2 3 4. Books Series or Disciplines. Time in motion pictures. Title PN D6W24 The annual event of Visible Evidence has deepened my interest in the theory and practice of documentary cinema and provided a global network of research colleagues and friends. First, I am grateful to the editors of the Visible Evidence series and especially to Michael Renov, who supported the theoretical aims of the manuscript and whose belief in this project was of great importance.

This book would never have appeared without his encouragement and commitment. I am grateful for the insightful critiques and suggestions provided by the anonymous reviewer. Many thanks also to the staff at the University of Minnesota Press, in particular to Jason Weidemann, Adam Brunner, and Mike Stoffel, for their help and support throughout the production of this book. I also want to thank Douglas Korb who assisted in editing the text.

I am grateful to my colleagues at the Department of Cinema Studies at Stockholm University, who offered important critiques, pointers, and stimulating debates at various stages in this project. Jan Olsson and John Fullerton helped me extend this work by encouraging related conference papers and essays, which propelled my theoretical interests in other research areas.

Consequently, many people outside Stockholm directly and indirectly contributed to this book.

Phenomenology and Media : An Anthology of Essays from Glimpse / Society for Phenomenology and Media

It was a great pleasure to work in Utrecht and at the Amsterdam Film Museum, and I express my gratitude to Frank Kessler at Utrecht University for his generous invitation and for his research seminar, where I had the opportunity to present a section of this book. Jens Rydgren followed the development of this project with unswerving interest. Aside from his love and consideration, Jens provided intellectual response as well as immeasurable inspiration and comfort throughout the writing process. Aumont argues that we have to distinguish between these two axes of image-time and experienced time.

The border between the time of viewing and the time of the image becomes in itself an issue that may be explored conceptually. The moving image challenges the classical contemplative mode of watching an image during an elective moment. Documentary aesthetics has been the subject of several panels at the Visible Evidence conference, which in many ways inspired the writing of this book. Not even Gilles Deleuze recognized the complex relation between the time of the image, allegories of time, and time experience in documentary.

I cannot aspire to exhaustive answers to the overall methodological problems addressed or touched upon here, although it has been my ambition to grapple with these concerns on both a metatheoretical and a practical level. Yet the same era also witnessed a renewed interest in issues of subjectivity, otherness, and ethics, which in turn propelled constructive interrelations between poststructuralism and psychoanalysis as well as between phenomenology and poststructuralism. Semiotic phenomenology is the generic term for these projects within and beyond French philosophy that address phenomenological problems of subjectivity, time, perception, and ethics from the horizon of the intellectual conquests of both semiotics and poststructuralism.

Still, the very opposition between phenomenology and semiotics was at the core of the s structuralist movement. My impression is that the poststructuralist urge for open-ended systems of thought, for mapping philosophical themes rather than constructing philosophical doctrines, paradoxically offers an intellectual ambience that seems particularly apt for a renewed interest in phenomenology. Rejecting the totalizing perspective of a metaphysical agenda does not necessarily mean that the intricate problems of time experience, perception, and imagination are outdated subjects for a contemporary perspective.

I refer to many of these discussions throughout this book.

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I acknowledge semiotic phenomenology as a continuous, mindopening, and nontotalizing discourse where the problems and shortfalls of both classical philosophy and contemporary theory meet with insights into existential, psychological, and aesthetic issues that were consciously bracketed and excluded after the structuralist turn. The chapters in this book provide a context- and problem-oriented discussion on the aesthetics and experience of image and time. I hope this book offers a correction to this situation.

The following discussions center on two basic problems of cinema and temporality. Discussions in this book relate these ideas to the trace as a crucial theme of existential phenomenology. As a philosophical discourse the trace goes beyond the materiality of the imprint. The book consists of two parts. The classical discourse of image and time involves an outspoken interest in the materiality of the image-object.

I have chosen to acknowledge this ambivalence as a creative possibility and a pragmatic issue beyond the enclosed problem of ontology. The examples illuminate the phenomenology of time and the persistence of related motifs in cinema, while also bringing attention to the limits of philosophical abstractions in the sociocultural and political realm of media culture.

Framing Change, Invoking the Moment This page intentionally left blank [ 1 ] The Phenomenology of Image and Time In documentary theory the phenomenology of the image as imprint and record fuses with the classical index argument, which has commonly been associated with the ascribed veracity of documentary representation. In this context the phenomenology of image and time corresponds with theoretical perspectives that aim beyond any a priori account of the documentary truth claim. The legitimacy of the musical metaphor in moving images, however, resides in the rhythmic and sensory aspect of unfolding movement and changes in tempo.

Metamorphosis is also akin to the abstraction of photographic detail provided by the poetics of cinema. Electronic and digital media also demonstrate this plastic quality. During the seven minutes of the video the static camera is contrasted to the dynamic play with movement, stop-motion, and change, as a man Viola loudly takes off to jump into the water. Owing to the mode of editing the passing of time materializes in the shifting daylight, which alters the lights and shades of the water that is now and then agitated as by invisible touch.

In this video the mimetic function of camera inscription meets with the sensory aspect of rhythm and the construction of an imaginary realm. The moving image is conceptually framed as an object in statu nascendi, as opposed to the static imprint of the photograph. In underlining the possibility of repetition and replaying, Bazin compared the temporal art of cinema with that of music.

The photograph turns to the temporal distance. It evokes the past time, whereas the cinematic image closes the void and stresses the time as presence. Despite recurrent claims about the irrelevance of analog representation and the indexical in the digital era, these issues about image and time seem as persistent as ever. This subjective voicing of a life-altering experience, however, is not the issue of an activist video.

Fast Trip, Long Drop represents a personal crisis that should profoundly affect most people, although it primarily is a drama fueled by the anger and commitment of a community that shared the historical moment of the AIDS crisis, including the social and political consequences it had in everyday life. In this context the problem of image-affect is autobiographically motivated and personally expressed.

Accordingly, the subject of documentary is not reduced to the implied therapeutic aspect of self-representation and introspection but offers a historical perspective on ways in which the representation of the self matters to others. For example, Laura U. Hence, in this approach and other recent approaches to the sensory aspect of moving images, a reference to phenomenology is implied, although rarely acknowledged, argued for, or questioned.

To stage these visceral sensations conceptually and thematically, she brings attention to creative strategies in documentary. Deriving from time, it is acceleration; opposing the circumstance to the state and the relation to the dimension. Many of these references circumvent any easy conception of surface realism or cinematic representation, highlighting the creative and experiential matters of importance for studying moving images. The methodological diversity may be illustrated by two references in stark opposition. One perspective aligns with the realist tradition commonly associated with Bazin, and the other offers a direction based on the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty.

Casebier, however, dedicates one of the last chapters to documentary experience. The reason we overlook these aspects is that we customarily focus on either the general features of spectator psychology, such as cognitive aspects of how the narrative logic of story time is understood, or the formal aspects of the ways in which symbolic meaning is achieved.

Objections can be made whether a perspective traditionally concerned with the thing in itself would be able to account for the formal and narrative side of the mediating process, and not only with the transcended realm of moving images. Can phenomenology provide a perspective beyond the fallacy of introspection and transcendental idealism? These are methodological questions whose answers would demand a separate volume.


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  • How can we neglect that perception involves interpretation and constructed frames through which we react to sensory qualities as well as semantic information and symbolic signs? These problems are acknowledged in The Address of the Eye. Hence, the address of the eye corresponds both to the loci of sight involved in the viewing situation and to the perceptual skills of cinema. Usually, its perceptual organs remain hidden or transparent, but they may be noticed when the apparatus has been revealed on purpose or by chance.

    Rather, this relationship is understood as a reversible structure of perceptual and expressive activity, and cinematic vision is singled out as different from ocular vision. Despite this explicit orientation toward semiotic phenomenology, The Address of the Eye leaves us with some puzzlement. Drawing upon this recognition of embodied vision, The Address of the Eye nevertheless succumbs to an exaggerated emphasis on the act of seeing and being seen.

    This visual a priori of Gestalt theory, of background and foreground relations that also were primordial to Merleau-Ponty, may raise an objection regarding his reference to psychology, which seems rather archaic and outdated from the perspective of more contemporary research. The overall methodological objective is to promote phenomenology in terms of a strategy of thick description. As Sobchack is correct to emphasize, Maurice Merleau-Ponty was one of the initiators of semiotic phenomenology.

    Moreover, her methodological argument depends on a feminist perspective. The Address of the Eye provided a productive attempt to apply the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty to cinema. However, as I hope to show in the following discussions, phenomenology—in the sense of semiotic phenomenology—may provide a helpful framework for the present consideration of documentary time.

    Spiritual life is the movement of the mind. One naturally goes from philosophy to cinema, but also from cinema to philosophy. Identifying the paradoxical instant is therefore a problem where the phenomenology of time meets with classical attempts to specify the ontology of cinema. Bazin was an equally 22 important reference for his analysis of duration and qualitative change in cinema.

    The following reading of Bazin will relate to the debate on aesthetic phenomenology in postwar France, which is a context beyond consideration in the common account of Bazinian realism. Bazin was primarily interested in the experience behind the image, duration and change the unfolding and becoming of events on the screen , and the material and existential aspects of the image-imprint. For to begin with, it is formed by motion and rest, things which are by nature opposed to one another.

    In his famous analysis of time experience, Husserl recognizes the complex simultaneity between the enduring act of consciousness and the extension of the temporal object the melody , while also describing the retentional and protentional movements that vertically cut through the horizontal progression of time experience. For example, Dominique Janicaud argues that time is a nominal unity, and as such it cannot be grasped beyond the understanding of a temporal measure. Time experience by itself is nothing but the referential unity of such understanding.

    For example, this invocation of lived time is evident in the recorded sound of heartbeats and in the cinematic representation of the passing or halting of time. Gilles Deleuze is an important reference in this context.

    Phenomenology and Existentialism - VII

    He addressed the dynamic interrelation between our experience of art and the individual artwork. Still, the aesthetic object is claimed to have a relative independency beyond artistic intention and reception. It is a quality [vertu] of the sensory. But the form is not only the unity of the sensory; it is also a unity of meaning. This form is, however, above all the principle which informs the sensory by delimiting it. With a particular reality to record, the cameraman makes a certain choice: he chooses his frame.

    The second issue touches on the index argument, although Morgan overlooks the difference between the index and the trace. The affective implication of the image as a mnemonic sign depends, of course, on the indexical status of photographic inscription, whereas the trace primarily relates to a philosophical problem of image and memory that cannot be reduced to the semiotic problem of the index. The temporality of the photograph meets with the psychological effects of duration and change in moving images. The aesthetics of spatial depth and the temporal continuity of a long take have therefore often been confused with the acclaimed transparency of camera inscription.

    The photographic registration of an event is coupled with creative strategies to stress the time of the image. From this perspective realism in Nanook of the North Robert J. Montage could suggest the time involved. In Part II, I will consider the abstract feature of isochronal representation. Real-time approximation could be a useful term for examples where duration is staged to invoke a sensation of time passing, while also introducing ambiguity into the image.

    The notions of the mold and the death mask mirror the importance he gives to photographic inscription and the indexical relation between image and referent. Among the recent rereadings of Bazin, Rites of Realism offers a collection of essays that account for the ritual and performative aspects of representation and reenactment, beyond the problem of verisimilitude. Once represented, the event in question turns into a mnemonic object that may be looked at and reviewed over time.

    On the contrary Bazin celebrates the art of editing and the craft of a skilled editor to capture something of the ambience at the site of recording. The bull is dead, but on the screen it is brought to life and potentially killed again and again in eternity. It designates something without describing it; its function is limited to the assurance of an existence. Hence, indexicality together with its seemingly privileged relation to the referent—to singularity and contingency—is available to a range of media. Originally, the trace has less to do with the materiality of the vestige, than with its uncanny presence of absence.

    The trace is a trace of something, and therefore it stands out as an intentional object whose mode of being is equivalent to its function as inscription of the past within the present.

    Handbook of Phenomenological Aesthetics

    Moreover, regarding the overlapping albeit different problems of the index and the trace in documentary it would be interesting to address related issues of archive memory and the narrative construction of time, which is inevitable in any representation of the past. From this perspective the cinematic Zeitobjekt opens up to the sociocultural aspects of cinema as a technology of memory.

    These images and sounds provide souvenirs of past events, but they are usually unmemorable on a personal and subjective level. In Baroque iconography history is thought of as being cramped between the creative process of writing and the never resting, destructive god of time who tries to tear a page out of the book of history as he sweeps by. An old man with wreathed brow: his left hand grips a large book, his right hand attempts to tear out a page. Behind and above, stands history itself.

    Also, the destructive act of Chronos calls attention to the effacing of vestiges and, more indirectly, to abuses of archives and historical representation. Hence, the telling of time belongs to both historiography and poetics. It is a mediated process where a social, intersubjective realm is predominant in the response to what Husserl designated as Lebenswelt, and Heidegger as Dasein. In this general sense, intrigue designates the power of the narrative to refer to time experience and the meanings time has in our lives. This is the sphere in which the linear force of material time is vertically punctuated by a multitude of subjective stories.

    In this context the trace becomes an ethical possibility, linking the experience of the past to the responsibility of the present, in order to mediate, to interpret, and to provide narrative enactment. The same problem marks Memory, History, Forgetting. The perfect symmetry between narrative and temporality excludes other processes of temporalization. Aside from the literal manipulation of tempo and spacetime relations in moving images, the persistent theme of the trace in cinema provides for the relations between the present and the past that belong to narrative techniques and audiovisual strategies that appeal to our affection and imagination.

    I am less interested in the narrow sense of time measurement, which refers to quantitative measures for a precise evaluation of linear time, than in the intuitive estimation of duration and the sensory judgment of a temporal dimension. I lived responsibly in the real. History was not a matter of missing minutes on the tape. I did not stand helpless before it. I hewed to the texture of collected knowledge, took faith from the solid and availing stuff of our experience. A single narrative sweep, not ten thousand wisps of disinformation. For good and bad, media representations shape our conception of the past.

    The poetic enactment of the image-imprint brings attention to the memory objects of cultural preservation and the fragile texture of vestiges that are victims to the destructive power of Chronos. Resnais accounts for the long and complicated itinerary that awaits each book, poster, or image from the department of cataloging and indexing to the particular shelf where it is predestined to contribute to the overall memory of the library, or simply to dust and fall in oblivion.

    Here, the compiled material is not offered as a mere trace of the past but as a trace of another trace. The sociocultural and historical context, from where this documentary ready-made is taken, still clings to the inserted fragment. The ambivalent status of the trace resides in its simultaneous denotation of passage and mark: it represents a temporal transition between the present and past, remaining a static imprint of an irrevocable event.

    Maurice Merleau-Ponty implicitly confronted the issue as he stressed the sociocultural dimension of spectator expectation. How is it that some sequences, camera movements, and so forth strike us as either pleasant or disturbingly hard to watch? In his discussions Goffman combines situations in social life with a perspective on structural mechanisms on the side of representation, stage or screen performance, and the cultural realm of social interaction and intersubjective perception.

    The classical problem of image and death offers a relevant point of departure. Roland Barthes, who dedicated Camera Lucida to Jean-Paul Sartre, referred to the existential meaning of the photograph in terms of a pure this has been. In this context image and death are related to our ritual use of photographs to recall the face and gestures of dead relatives and friends. The affective meaning of image and death, however, goes beyond the family album and the irrevocable past of the photograph.

    However ubiquitous death is—we all ultimately suffer from it—it calls into question the social order and its value systems; it attacks our mad scramble for power, our simplistic rationalism and our unacknowledged, child-like belief in immortality. Nevertheless, the stark contrast between text, music, and uncompromising images of animals being slaughtered brings attention to the shocking impact of an isochronal representation of death.

    The image of somebody dying or being killed represents a poignant trope of time, where the irrevocable ending of lived time is screened without any deeper insight into the question of death and decease. In the context of existential phenomenology the change from being into nonbeing represents a recurrent subject of discussion.

    Death is a motif that is both excessively visual and impossible to represent. She acknowledges the gut-feeling aspect of wonder and belief as we face the screening of an actual death. Like many other newspapers and journals Time Magazine published a whole series of images from Ground Zero in New York, disturbingly well-composed pictures of disaster. There is a decisive use of contrasting between the communal engagement in, and respect of, the dead in Thailand, Mexico, and South Korea and the isolated, industrialized, and repressive culture of death in the Western world represented by the United States and Belgium.

    Although Of the Dead is marked by the typical direct cinema ideal of recording the real to unveil a social truth, it zooms into the normally insupportable image of death and decay and offers persistent framings that question the suggested transparency of photographic representation. Then, the skin is painted in a true-to-life color. The next sequence shows mountains and jungle in the north of Thailand.

    A Hmong village is introduced, followed by the wake of an old woman. In this context when a pig and several other animals are slaughtered, animal death is not framed as an image of death but a depiction of the living paying tribute to the Gods and the deceased.

    Not even in the later sequence where the funeral ceremony is represented and the face of the dead woman has decayed beyond recognition does the image evoke as much anxiety as the clinical, cold, and dehumanized counterpart of the Western funeral home and autopsy room. Again, the representation of death as a disquieting trope of time in moving images depends on conventions and expectations related to style and to expressive strategies to invoke death as a frame-breaking event.

    Regarding the problem of spectator psychology the reader will notice a similar limitation in this book. There are, however, related theoretical references that may be helpful, indicating a possible development in this direction. Pragmatic, but not relativist, he departs from the assumption that experience has less to do with ontology or with the biological processes of the brain, than with how socially constructed meanings and the culture of social activities shape our expectations and the concepts through which we understand and react to given situations.

    Moreover, this negative experience involves a meta-awareness of the very extension of the tune, which stresses the unpleasant constraint of sitting out an experience while sitting in it. In this context frame denotes the activity of perceiving a sound, visual representation, or performance because we always experience through a socioculturally shaped and shared frame of references, knowledge, and values.

    Frame also points to the notable impact that the intersubjective activity of framing has on rendering a perceived situation meaningful. Still, our frame of reference may just as well break down in receiving representations, narratives, and diverse kinds of performances. Goffman charts a social context where the intersubjective dimension of negative experience is particularly poignant and where this effect may also be intentionally provoked for dramatic, aesthetic, and poetic purposes.

    Welles said after the performance that he guessed he just got caught up too realistically in the spirit of the play. In the encounter with a pure performance, he argues, we cannot examine but one frame element at a time. In Part II, the notion of the frame-breaking event will be related to the expressive function of temporalization in documentary. In the context where screen attraction supposedly coincides with a thrill of the real, the frame-breaking event is often propelled by a combination of manipulated space-time duration, tempo, rhythm, and repetition and the enactment of the sound-image record as a trace of a historical and social realm.

    Classical as well as more recent examples of experimental documentary will bring attention to the creative possibilities of time measurement in documentary and the thematic enactment of the trace. For example, the photographic detail may represent a provocative claim to represent beyond representation, or the photographic imprint may be accused of reducing a complex historical event to a spectacular sight of horror and death. The Sonderkommando consisted of prisoners whose function was to lead their fellow prisoners into the gas chamber and then to collect and dispose of their remains.

    They argued that his description of what the images show, suggest, and fail to show annihilated the temporal distance between presence and past and resulted in an exaggerated focus on the image-object as fetish. To address these images as photographic and aesthetic objects cannot result in anything but a morally dubious voyeurism.

    Hence, DidiHuberman relates to Holocaust photography and its discourse of the unimaginable. Didi-Huberman offers a lengthy account of the fact that the photographer had to hide in the dark to take these pictures and that the building in question is most likely to be the gas chamber. He retreated into darkness, which thus protected his point of view. He ventures to change position and moves forward: The second shot is a little more frontal and slightly closer to its target.

    Hence, it is more hazardous, but also, paradoxically, better composed: a neater picture. As if for an instant the terror was subordinate to the necessity of his mission, to tear an image. It shows the task of his fellow workers, to deprive the corpses of their last human features. The testimonial function ascribed to the photograph and the problematic approach to visual aesthetics and imagination appalled critics. Regarding the present consideration of image and time, the major problem is that Didi-Huberman overlooks the difference between the photograph as inscription and the photograph as trace.

    Although he clearly refers to JeanPaul Sartre and Maurice Merleau-Ponty in his emphasis on imagination, he does not explicitly address the importance of extratextual knowledge and narrative imagination when insisting upon the immanent meaning of the image. I was inspired by this concern with the image after all, related issues regarding archive and memory, and, not least, the recognition of cinematic strategies to stage the image as a trace of the past. Whether we agree with Didi-Huberman or his critics, in a documentary context the debate is important in demarcating the problem of historical representation and imagination.

    The trace has less to do with transcendence or truth than with the activity of the viewer to imagine the past. In this case the impact of the photograph as trace involves primarily an ethical appeal to the viewer, in order to engage with and respond to the image as archive memory. In chapter 2, I mentioned that the problem of the trace was crucial to the classical philosophy of memory. Moreover, the materiality of the vestige may itself be subject to representation.

    Sometimes the camera zooms into the scars and vestiges of the past, making them visible in landscapes, buildings, or a human face. In this sense the photographic marker of time takes on a physical, spatial dimension. Lanzmann explored this possibility, and he rejected the photograph in favor of cinematographic strategies to map the sites of former Nazi camps and the faces, gestures, and testimonies of survivors and former guards.

    In this context it is important to consider audiovisual strategies to map the voids and gaps of history, in order to evoke the painful loss of memories or even the inability to remember. Examples are provided in Shoah and Night and Fog through the bodily appearance and facial expressions of victims in the former and through the stark references to physical violence in the latter.

    In Night and Fog the photographic record of the Holocaust shows terrifying vestiges of affected bodies, such as a mountain of eyeglasses, cut hair, and the marks made by nails on the ceiling of a gas chamber. These vestiges are imprints that provoke our imagination of suffering, giving brute evidence of violence and endless terror. The literal framing of the imprint is perhaps most striking in cases where we actually see a body being affected, that is, when the indexical sign coincides with a representation in approximate real time.

    Pornographic representation is most commonly associated with this effect of indexicality because the fragmented body landscape of insistent close-ups suggests the unfolding of an event in real time. A related example, which nevertheless works out differently as an instant shock effect, would be the unexpected violence of a body being hurt in front of the camera. Sitting at a table, Farocki quotes the statement of Thai Bihn Dahn, a Vietnamese man who experienced a napalm attack on his village in The following statement precedes an allegoric visualization of napalm burns: How can we show you napalm in action?

    How can we show you the injuries caused by napalm? If we show you a picture of napalm injuries, you will close your eyes. First you will close your eyes to the pictures, then you will close your eyes to their memory, then you will close your eyes to the facts, and then you will close your eyes to the entire context. If we show you a person with napalm injuries, we will hurt your feelings. We can give you only a hint of an idea of how napalm works. In the context of reframed vestiges and marks in landscapes and faces, the trace constitutes a recurrent iconography of pastness, which often fuses with violence and death.

    Yet the affective impact of the trace goes beyond the notion of visual imprint. Sound plays a pivotal role, and as a sign of affection and memory in documentary, the trace is not necessarily dependent on photographic representation. Experimental Figures of Time This page intentionally left blank [ 4 ] The Interval and Pulse Beat of Rhythm In Introduction I suggested that rhythm represents a problem of special importance for the conception of the moving image as screen event.

    Rhythm stands out as a classical problem in aesthetic theory and most notably in relation to the temporal arts of music, dance, and theater, where it represents an element of importance for the overall expressive structure. The creative exploration of the optics and rhythms of cinema nonetheless applies to the notions of aesthetic phenomenology that were introduced in Part I and which may still provide insights into the formal and sensory work of space and time in moving images. These experiments often resulted in imaginary realms beyond natural perception and closely aligned with those of avant-garde cinema.

    In the beginning of the s J. He gave hundreds of lectures in classes of adult education. Uit het rijk der kristallen From the Domain of Crystals, J. Mol, The Netherlands, shows chemical substances transformed into sparkling crystals. This screening also anointed Mol a celebrated member of the Dutch Film League. The experimental approach to cinematic vision points to the paradoxical coexistence of a perception that presents itself as becoming perception or a vision beyond the parameters of binocular vision. As Rosalind E.

    He wrote that cinema resembles music in that cinema is an art form in which a line of thought is mediated by leading motifs, changes in tempo, and rhythmic highlights. This is a qualitative fact of harmonic duration that has to be transformed into, if I dare to describe it as such, sonorities constituted from the emotions contained within the image itself.

    In cinematographic measurement, visual rhythms correspond to musical rhythms which lend weight and meaning to general movement. These visual acts, as valuable as the lengthy harmonic passages, transform themselves, I dare say, from the sounds derived from the emotions found within the image itself. Mathematics was, according to Guyot, the common trait of music and cinema. When he does not count, he measures. Just as in music, mathematical precision is at the core of cinema. Mol it is striking how this mathematical ideal echoes some years later in the context of the Dutch Film League.

    Usually we see nothing but cinema, crowds, the commercial regime, America, kitsch. Notes on the Succession of Film Images. With cinematic perception we move into a fascination with a modern technology, which, similar to photography, complicated and transformed the relation between natural perception and representation in visual art.