He drew a new line along the Volga , following the Volga north until the Samara Bend , along Obshchy Syrt the drainage divide between Volga and Ural and then north along Ural Mountains. The mapmakers continued to differ on the boundary between the lower Don and Samara well into the 19th century. The atlas published by the Russian Academy of Sciences has the boundary follow the Don beyond Kalach as far as Serafimovich before cutting north towards Arkhangelsk , while other 18th- to 19th-century mapmakers such as John Cary followed Strahlenberg's prescription.
To the south, the Kuma—Manych Depression was identified circa by a German naturalist, Peter Simon Pallas , as a valley that once connected the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea,   and subsequently was proposed as a natural boundary between continents. By the midth century, there were three main conventions, one following the Don, the Volga—Don Canal and the Volga, the other following the Kuma—Manych Depression to the Caspian and then the Ural River, and the third abandoning the Don altogether, following the Greater Caucasus watershed to the Caspian.
The question was still treated as a "controversy" in geographical literature of the s, with Douglas Freshfield advocating the Caucasus crest boundary as the "best possible", citing support from various "modern geographers". In Russia and the Soviet Union , the boundary along the Kuma—Manych Depression was the most commonly used as early as Homo erectus georgicus , which lived roughly 1. The Neanderthals were supplanted by modern humans Cro-Magnons , who appeared in Europe around 43, to 40, years ago.
The European Neolithic period—marked by the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock, increased numbers of settlements and the widespread use of pottery—began around BC in Greece and the Balkans , probably influenced by earlier farming practices in Anatolia and the Near East. Between and BC, these central European neolithic cultures developed further to the west and the north, transmitting newly acquired skills in producing copper artifacts.
In Western Europe the Neolithic period was characterised not by large agricultural settlements but by field monuments, such as causewayed enclosures , burial mounds and megalithic tombs. During this period giant megalithic monuments, such as the Megalithic Temples of Malta and Stonehenge , were constructed throughout Western and Southern Europe.
The European Bronze Age began c. Ancient Greece was the founding culture of Western civilisation. Western democratic and rationalist culture are often attributed to Ancient Greece. Greece also generated many cultural contributions: in philosophy , humanism and rationalism under Aristotle , Socrates and Plato ; in history with Herodotus and Thucydides ; in dramatic and narrative verse, starting with the epic poems of Homer ;  in drama with Sophocles and Euripides , in medicine with Hippocrates and Galen ; and in science with Pythagoras , Euclid and Archimedes.
Greece was followed by Rome , which left its mark on law , politics , language , engineering , architecture , government and many more key aspects in western civilisation. The two centuries that followed are known as the pax romana , a period of unprecedented peace, prosperity, and political stability in most of Europe. The empire continued to expand under emperors such as Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius , who spent time on the Empire's northern border fighting Germanic , Pictish and Scottish tribes. Christianity was legalised by Constantine I in AD after three centuries of imperial persecution.
Constantine also permanently moved the capital of the empire from Rome to the city of Byzantium , which was renamed Constantinople in his honour modern-day Istanbul in AD. Christianity became the sole official religion of the empire in AD, and in — AD, the emperor Theodosius outlawed pagan religions. During the decline of the Roman Empire , Europe entered a long period of change arising from what historians call the " Age of Migrations ".
Isolated monastic communities were the only places to safeguard and compile written knowledge accumulated previously; apart from this very few written records survive and much literature, philosophy, mathematics, and other thinking from the classical period disappeared from Western Europe though they were preserved in the east, in the Byzantine Empire.
While the Roman empire in the west continued to decline, Roman traditions and the Roman state remained strong in the predominantly Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire , also known as the Byzantine Empire. During most of its existence, the Byzantine Empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Emperor Justinian I presided over Constantinople's first golden age: he established a legal code that forms the basis of many modern legal systems, funded the construction of the Hagia Sophia , and brought the Christian church under state control.
From the 7th century onwards, as the Byzantines and neighbouring Sasanid Persians were severely weakened due the protracted, centuries-lasting and frequent Byzantine—Sasanian wars , the Muslim Arabs began to make inroads into historically Roman territory, taking the Levant and North Africa and making inroads into Asia Minor. Peter's and St. Paul's-Outside-the-Walls, but were prevented from entering the city itself by the Aurelian Walls. Rome fortified its defenses after the sacking, repelling a raid in ; the city was never again attacked by a Muslim fleet.
The unsuccessful second siege of Constantinople weakened the Umayyad dynasty and reduced their prestige. The Umayyads were then defeated by the Frankish leader Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in , which ended their northward advance. This led in to the founding of the Holy Roman Empire , which eventually became centred in the German principalities of central Europe. The powerful West Slavic state of Great Moravia spread its territory all the way south to the Balkans, reaching its largest territorial extent under Svatopluk I and causing a series of armed conflicts with East Francia.
To the East, the Kievan Rus expanded from its capital in Kiev to become the largest state in Europe by the 10th century. In , Vladimir the Great adopted Orthodox Christianity as the religion of state. The period between the year and is known as the High Middle Ages , during which the population of Europe experienced significant growth, culminating in the Renaissance of the 12th century.
Economic growth, together with the lack of safety on the mainland trading routes, made possible the development of major commercial routes along the coast of the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. The growing wealth and independence acquired by some coastal cities gave the Maritime Republics a leading role in the European scene. The Middle Ages on the mainland were dominated by the two upper echelons of the social structure: the nobility and the clergy. Through monasteries and cathedral schools, the Church was responsible for education in much of Europe. The Papacy reached the height of its power during the High Middle Ages.
In the Iberian Peninsula , the Reconquista concluded with the fall of Granada in , ending over seven centuries of Islamic rule in the south-western peninsula.
Europe as Empire: The Nature of the Enlarged European Union
Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe from the 9th to the 12th centuries, with a population of approximately , In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Pechenegs and the Cuman-Kipchaks , caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north and temporarily halted the expansion of the Rus' state to the south and east. They established the state of the Golden Horde with headquarters in Crimea, which later adopted Islam as a religion and ruled over modern-day southern and central Russia for more than three centuries.
Previously, these territories were under the successive control of Pechenegs and Cumans. The state was consolidated under Ivan III the Great and Ivan the Terrible , steadily expanding to the east and south over the next centuries. The population of France was reduced by half. The plague had a devastating effect on Europe's social structure; it induced people to live for the moment as illustrated by Giovanni Boccaccio in The Decameron It was a serious blow to the Roman Catholic Church and led to increased persecution of Jews , beggars , and lepers.
The Renaissance was a period of cultural change originating in Florence and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The rise of a new humanism was accompanied by the recovery of forgotten classical Greek and Arabic knowledge from monastic libraries, often translated from Arabic into Latin. Political intrigue within the Church in the midth century caused the Western Schism.
During this forty-year period, two popes—one in Avignon and one in Rome—claimed rulership over the Church. Although the schism was eventually healed in , the papacy's spiritual authority had suffered greatly. Spain and Portugal, the greatest naval powers of the time, took the lead in exploring the world. Soon after, the Spanish and Portuguese began establishing large global empires in the Americas, Asia, Africa and Oceania.
The Church's power was further weakened by the Protestant Reformation in when German theologian Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-five Theses criticizing the selling of indulgences to the church door. He was subsequently excommunicated in the papal bull Exsurge Domine in , and his followers were condemned in the Diet of Worms , which divided German princes between Protestant and Roman Catholic faiths. During the period of until , Europe was plagued by wars of religion. The plunder of the empires of the Americas by Spanish conquistadors allowed Spain to finance religious persecution in Europe for over a century.
The Thirty Years War — crippled the Holy Roman Empire and devastated much of Germany , killing between 25 and 40 percent of its population. The 17th century in central and eastern Europe was a period of general decline. Between and in the central and eastern Europe ended hegemony of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1989: The Berlin Wall comes down and the soldiers go home
From the 15th to 18th centuries, when the disintegrating khanates of the Golden Horde were conquered by Russia, Tatars from the Crimean Khanate frequently raided Eastern Slavic lands to capture slaves. Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Siberia. The Renaissance and the New Monarchs marked the start of an Age of Discovery, a period of exploration, invention, and scientific development. The Age of Enlightenment was a powerful intellectual movement during the 18th century promoting scientific and reason-based thoughts.
These revolutions were eventually put down by conservative elements and few reforms resulted. In , the Austro-Hungarian empire was formed ; and saw the unifications of both Italy and Germany as nation-states from smaller principalities. As the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire seemed imminent, the Great Powers struggled to safeguard their strategic and commercial interests in the Ottoman domains. The Russian Empire stood to benefit from the decline, whereas the Habsburg Empire and Britain perceived the preservation of the Ottoman Empire to be in their best interests.
Meanwhile, the Serbian revolution and Greek War of Independence marked the beginning of the end of Ottoman rule in the Balkans , which ended with the Balkan Wars in — The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the last part of the 18th century and spread throughout Europe. The invention and implementation of new technologies resulted in rapid urban growth, mass employment, and the rise of a new working class. Two world wars and an economic depression dominated the first half of the 20th century. World War I was fought between and Russia was plunged into the Russian Revolution , which threw down the Tsarist monarchy and replaced it with the communist Soviet Union.
The Treaty of Versailles , which officially ended World War I in , was harsh towards Germany, upon whom it placed full responsibility for the war and imposed heavy sanctions. Excess deaths in Russia over the course of World War I and the Russian Civil War including the postwar famine amounted to a combined total of 18 million. Stalin was also responsible for the Great Purge of —38 in which the NKVD executed , people;  millions of people were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.
The social revolutions sweeping through Russia also affected other European nations following The Great War : in , with the Weimar Republic in Germany, and the First Austrian Republic ; in , with Mussolini 's one party fascist government in the Kingdom of Italy , and in Ataturk 's Turkish Republic , adopting the Western alphabet, and state secularism. Economic instability, caused in part by debts incurred in the First World War and 'loans' to Germany played havoc in Europe in the late s and s.
Helped by the economic crisis, social instability and the threat of communism, fascist movements developed throughout Europe placing Adolf Hitler in power of what became Nazi Germany. In , Hitler became the leader of Germany and began to work towards his goal of building Greater Germany. Germany re-expanded and took back the Saarland and Rhineland in and In , Austria became a part of Germany following the Anschluss.
Later that year, following the Munich Agreement signed by Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Italy, Germany annexed the Sudetenland , which was a part of Czechoslovakia inhabited by ethnic Germans, and in early , the remainder of Czechoslovakia was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia , controlled by Germany, and the Slovak Republic.
At the time, Britain and France preferred a policy of appeasement. With tensions mounting between Germany and Poland over the future of Danzig , the Germans turned to the Soviets, and signed the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact , which allowed the Soviets to invade the Baltic states and parts of Poland and Romania. The British hoped to land at Narvik and send troops to aid Finland, but their primary objective in the landing was to encircle Germany and cut the Germans off from Scandinavian resources.
Around the same time, Germany moved troops into Denmark. The Phoney War continued. France capitulated in June By August Germany began a bombing offensive on Britain , but failed to convince the Britons to give up. After the staggering Battle of Stalingrad in , the German offensive in the Soviet Union turned into a continual fallback. The Battle of Kursk , which involved the largest tank battle in history, was the last major German offensive on the Eastern Front. The two new superpowers , the United States and the Soviet Union, became locked in a fifty-year-long Cold War, centred on nuclear proliferation.
At the same time decolonisation , which had already started after World War I, gradually resulted in the independence of most of the European colonies in Asia and Africa. Germany was reunited, after the symbolic fall of the Berlin Wall in , and the maps of Central and Eastern Europe were redrawn once more. European integration also grew after World War II. The Treaty of Rome in established the European Economic Community between six Western European states with the goal of a unified economic policy and common market.
The EU established a parliament , court and central bank and introduced the euro as a unified currency. Europe makes up the western fifth of the Eurasian landmass. The southern regions are more mountainous, while moving north the terrain descends from the high Alps , Pyrenees , and Carpathians , through hilly uplands, into broad, low northern plains, which are vast in the east.
An arc of uplands also exists along the north-western seaboard, which begins in the western parts of the islands of Britain and Ireland, and then continues along the mountainous, fjord-cut spine of Norway. This description is simplified. Sub-regions such as the Iberian Peninsula and the Italian Peninsula contain their own complex features, as does mainland Central Europe itself, where the relief contains many plateaus, river valleys and basins that complicate the general trend.
Sub-regions like Iceland , Britain, and Ireland are special cases. The former is a land unto itself in the northern ocean which is counted as part of Europe, while the latter are upland areas that were once joined to the mainland until rising sea levels cut them off. Europe lies mainly in the temperate climate zones, being subjected to prevailing westerlies. The climate is milder in comparison to other areas of the same latitude around the globe due to the influence of the Gulf Stream.
The Gulf Stream not only carries warm water to Europe's coast but also warms up the prevailing westerly winds that blow across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean. The yearly average temperature in city of Inverness is 9. In general, Europe isn't just colder towards the north compared to the south, but it also gets colder from the west towards the east. The climate is more oceanic in the west, and less so in the east.
This can be illustrated by the following table of average temperatures at locations roughly following the 60th, 55th, 50th, 45th and 40th latitudes.
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None of them is located at high terrain, most of them close to the sea. For instance, Edinburgh is warmer than Belgrade during the coldest month of the year, although Belgrade is located around 10 latitudes farther south. The geological history of Europe traces back to the formation of the Baltic Shield Fennoscandia and the Sarmatian craton , both around 2. Around 1. Finally, and very soon afterwards, Laurasia itself split up again, into Laurentia North America and the Eurasian continent.
The land connection between the two persisted for a considerable time, via Greenland , leading to interchange of animal species. Europe's present shape dates to the late Tertiary period about five million years ago. The geology of Europe is hugely varied and complex, and gives rise to the wide variety of landscapes found across the continent, from the Scottish Highlands to the rolling plains of Hungary. The northern plains are delimited in the west by the Scandinavian Mountains and the mountainous parts of the British Isles. The northern plain contains the old geological continent of Baltica , and so may be regarded geologically as the "main continent", while peripheral highlands and mountainous regions in the south and west constitute fragments from various other geological continents.
Most of the older geology of western Europe existed as part of the ancient microcontinent Avalonia. Having lived side-by-side with agricultural peoples for millennia, Europe's animals and plants have been profoundly affected by the presence and activities of man. With the exception of Fennoscandia and northern Russia, few areas of untouched wilderness are currently found in Europe, except for various national parks. The main natural vegetation cover in Europe is mixed forest. The conditions for growth are very favourable. Southern Europe could be described as having a warm, but mild climate.
There are frequent summer droughts in this region. Mountain ridges also affect the conditions. Some of these Alps , Pyrenees are oriented east-west and allow the wind to carry large masses of water from the ocean in the interior. Others are oriented south-north Scandinavian Mountains , Dinarides , Carpathians , Apennines and because the rain falls primarily on the side of mountains that is oriented towards the sea, forests grow well on this side, while on the other side, the conditions are much less favourable.
Few corners of mainland Europe have not been grazed by livestock at some point in time, and the cutting down of the pre-agricultural forest habitat caused disruption to the original plant and animal ecosystems. Probably 80 to 90 percent of Europe was once covered by forest. Although over half of Europe's original forests disappeared through the centuries of deforestation , Europe still has over one quarter of its land area as forest, such as the broadleaf and mixed forests, taiga of Scandinavia and Russia, mixed rainforests of the Caucasus and the Cork oak forests in the western Mediterranean.
During recent times, deforestation has been slowed and many trees have been planted. However, in many cases monoculture plantations of conifers have replaced the original mixed natural forest, because these grow quicker. The plantations now cover vast areas of land, but offer poorer habitats for many European forest dwelling species which require a mixture of tree species and diverse forest structure. In temperate Europe, mixed forest with both broadleaf and coniferous trees dominate.
The most important species in central and western Europe are beech and oak. In the north, the taiga is a mixed spruce — pine — birch forest; further north within Russia and extreme northern Scandinavia, the taiga gives way to tundra as the Arctic is approached. In the Mediterranean, many olive trees have been planted, which are very well adapted to its arid climate; Mediterranean Cypress is also widely planted in southern Europe.
The semi-arid Mediterranean region hosts much scrub forest. A narrow east-west tongue of Eurasian grassland the steppe extends eastwards from Ukraine and southern Russia and ends in Hungary and traverses into taiga to the north. Glaciation during the most recent ice age and the presence of man affected the distribution of European fauna.
As for the animals, in many parts of Europe most large animals and top predator species have been hunted to extinction. The woolly mammoth was extinct before the end of the Neolithic period. Today wolves carnivores and bears omnivores are endangered. Once they were found in most parts of Europe.
However, deforestation and hunting caused these animals to withdraw further and further. By the Middle Ages the bears' habitats were limited to more or less inaccessible mountains with sufficient forest cover. Today, the brown bear lives primarily in the Balkan peninsula , Scandinavia, and Russia; a small number also persist in other countries across Europe Austria, Pyrenees etc. In addition, polar bears may be found on Svalbard , a Norwegian archipelago far north of Scandinavia. The wolf , the second largest predator in Europe after the brown bear, can be found primarily in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, with a handful of packs in pockets of Western Europe Scandinavia, Spain, etc.
European wild cat, foxes especially the red fox , jackal and different species of martens, hedgehogs, different species of reptiles like snakes such as vipers and grass snakes and amphibians, different birds owls, hawks and other birds of prey. Important European herbivores are snails, larvae, fish, different birds, and mammals, like rodents, deer and roe deer, boars, and living in the mountains, marmots, steinbocks, chamois among others.
A number of insects, such as the small tortoiseshell butterfly, add to the biodiversity. The extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants has been linked to the earliest arrival of humans on the islands of the Mediterranean. Sea creatures are also an important part of European flora and fauna. The sea flora is mainly phytoplankton.
Important animals that live in European seas are zooplankton , molluscs , echinoderms , different crustaceans , squids and octopuses , fish, dolphins , and whales. Biodiversity is protected in Europe through the Council of Europe's Bern Convention , which has also been signed by the European Community as well as non-European states. The political map of Europe is substantially derived from the re-organisation of Europe following the Napoleonic Wars in The prevalent form of government in Europe is parliamentary democracy , in most cases in the form of Republic ; in , the prevalent form of government was still the Monarchy.
Europe's remaining eleven monarchies  are constitutional. European integration is the process of political, legal, economic and in some cases social and cultural integration of European states as it has been pursued by the powers sponsoring the Council of Europe since the end of World War II The European Union has been the focus of economic integration on the continent since its foundation in More recently, the Eurasian Economic Union has been established as a counterpart comprising former Soviet states. The list below includes all entities [ clarification needed ] falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe , [ clarification needed ] geographic or political.
Within the above-mentioned states are several de facto independent countries with limited to no international recognition. None of them are members of the UN:. Several dependencies and similar territories with broad autonomy are also found within or in close proximity to Europe. Svalbard is also included due to its unique status within Norway, although it is not autonomous. Not included are the three countries of the United Kingdom with devolved powers and the two Autonomous Regions of Portugal , which despite having a unique degree of autonomy, are not largely self-governing in matters other than international affairs.
Areas with little more than a unique tax status, such as Heligoland and the Canary Islands , are also not included for this reason. It was one of several regions where wealth surpassed its precrisis year-end peak. The richer states tend to be in the West ; some of the Central and Eastern European economies are still emerging from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the breakup of Yugoslavia.
The European Union, a political entity composed of 28 European states, comprises the largest single economic area in the world. There is huge disparity between many European countries in terms of their income. Capitalism has been dominant in the Western world since the end of feudalism. Economies were disrupted by World War I but by the beginning of World War II they had recovered and were having to compete with the growing economic strength of the United States. World War II, again, damaged much of Europe's industries. After World War II the economy of the UK was in a state of ruin,  and continued to suffer relative economic decline in the following decades.
West Germany recovered quickly and had doubled production from pre-war levels by the s. The states which retained a free-market system were given a large amount of aid by the United States under the Marshall Plan. Until , the European Community was expanded from 6 founding members to The emphasis placed on resurrecting the West German economy led to it overtaking the UK as Europe's largest economy.
With the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in , the post-socialist states began free market reforms. After East and West Germany were reunited in , the economy of West Germany struggled as it had to support and largely rebuild the infrastructure of East Germany. By the millennium change, the EU dominated the economy of Europe comprising the five largest European economies of the time namely Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain. In , 12 of the 15 members of the EU joined the Eurozone replacing their former national currencies by the common euro. The European Union is now the largest economy in the world.
Figures released by Eurostat in confirmed that the Eurozone had gone into recession in In , the population of Europe was estimated to be million according to the revision of the World Population Prospects  , which is slightly more than one-ninth of the world's population. This number includes Asian Russia Siberia, about 36 million people but excludes the European part of Turkey, Cyprus and the Transcaucasian countries.
A century ago, Europe had nearly a quarter of the world's population. Most of Europe is in a mode of Sub-replacement fertility , which means that each new -born generation is being less populous than the older. The most densely populated country in Europe and in the world is the microstate of Monaco. Pan and Pfeil count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The average number of children per female of child-bearing age is 1.
The UN predicts a steady population decline in Central and Eastern Europe as a result of emigration and low birth rates.
Europe is home to the highest number of migrants of all global regions at Early modern emigration from Europe began with Spanish and Portuguese settlers in the 16th century,   and French and English settlers in the 17th century. Today, large populations of European descent are found on every continent. European ancestry predominates in North America, and to a lesser degree in South America particularly in Uruguay , Argentina , Chile and Brazil , while most of the other Latin American countries also have a considerable population of European origins.
Australia and New Zealand have large European derived populations. Europe has about indigenous languages,  mostly falling within three Indo-European language groups: the Romance languages , derived from the Latin of the Roman Empire ; the Germanic languages , whose ancestor language came from southern Scandinavia; and the Slavic languages. Romance languages are spoken primarily in south-western Europe as well as in Romania and Moldova in Eastern Europe. Kartvelian languages Georgian , Mingrelian , and Svan are spoken primarily in Georgia.
Two other language families reside in the North Caucasus termed Northeast Caucasian , most notably including Chechen , Avar , and Lezgin ; and Northwest Caucasian , most notably including Adyghe. Maltese is the only Semitic language that is official within the EU, while Basque is the only European language isolate. Multilingualism and the protection of regional and minority languages are recognised political goals in Europe today. The four most populous cities of Europe are Istanbul , Moscow , Paris and London , each have over 10 million residents,  and as such have been described as megacities.
The next largest cities in order of population are Saint Petersburg , Madrid , Berlin and Rome , each having over 3 million residents. When considering the commuter belts or metropolitan areas , within the EU for which comparable data is available London covers the largest population, followed in order by Paris, Madrid, Barcelona, Berlin, the Ruhr area , Rome, Milan, Athens and Warsaw. The boundaries of Europe were historically understood as those of Christendom or more specifically Latin Christendom , as established or defended throughout the medieval and early modern history of Europe, especially against Islam , as in the Reconquista and the Ottoman wars in Europe.
This shared cultural heritage is combined by overlapping indigenous national cultures and folklores, roughly divided into Slavic , Latin Romance and Germanic , but with several components not part of either of these group notably Greek and Celtic. Cultural contact and mixtures characterise much of European regional cultures; Kaplan describes Europe as "embracing maximum cultural diversity at minimal geographical distances".
Historically , religion in Europe has been a major influence on European art , culture , philosophy and law. The largest religion in Europe is Christianity , with Among Protestants, the most popular are historically state-supported European denominations such as Lutheranism , Anglicanism and the Reformed faith. Other Protestant denominations such as historically significant ones like Anabaptists were never supported by any state and thus are not so widespread, as well as these newly arriving from the United States such as Pentecostalism , Adventism , Methodism , Baptists and various Evangelical Protestants ; although Methodism and Baptists both have European origins.
The notion of "Europe" and the " Western World " has been intimately connected with the concept of " Christianity and Christendom "; many even attribute Christianity for being the link that created a unified European identity.
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Christianity , including the Roman Catholic Church ,   has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century,     and for at least a millennium and a half, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture , even though the religion was inherited from the Middle East. Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization , guiding the course of philosophy , art , and science.
Other religions, including Judaism, Hinduism , and Buddhism are minority religions though Tibetan Buddhism is the majority religion of Russia's Republic of Kalmykia. The 20th century saw the revival of Neopaganism through movements such as Wicca and Druidry.
Europe has become a relatively secular continent, with an increasing number and proportion of irreligious , atheist and agnostic people, who make up about There are a particularly high number of self-described non-religious people in the Czech Republic, Estonia , Sweden, former East Germany, and France. North America. South America. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the continent.
For the politico-economic union, see European Union. For other uses, see Europe disambiguation. Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. Show national borders. Hide national borders. Further information: Europa mythology. Further information: List of transcontinental countries and Boundaries between the continents of Earth. Channel Is. Czech Rep. IoM UK. Svalbard Nor. Switz- erland. United Kingdom. Greenland Dk.
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Bay of Biscay. Black Sea. Caspian Sea. Celtic Sea. Greenland Sea. Baffin Bay. Ligurian Sea. Mediterranean Sea. North Atlantic Ocean. North Sea. Norwegian Sea. Strait of Gibraltar. Further information: Regions of Europe and Core Europe. Main article: History of Europe. Main article: Prehistoric Europe. Main article: Classical antiquity. See also: Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.
See also: Dark Ages historiography and Age of Migrations. See also: Medieval demography. Main article: Early modern period. Main article: Modern history. Main articles: Modern era and History of Europe. Main article: Geography of Europe. Main article: Climate of Europe. Main articles: Geology of Europe and Geological history of Europe. Main article: Fauna of Europe. Main article: Politics of Europe. See also: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe , International organizations in Europe , Regions of Europe , and European integration.
Main articles: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe and Area and population of European countries. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe. Discuss October Main article: Demographics of Europe. See also: List of European countries by population and Ageing of Europe.
Main article: Ethnic groups in Europe. Further information: Genetic history of Europe. Main articles: Immigration to Europe and European diaspora. Main article: Languages of Europe. Main article: Culture of Europe. Further information: European folklore and European art. Main article: Religion in Europe. Main articles: List of Europe-related articles and Outline of Europe. Europe portal Geography portal. The population and area figures refer to the entire state, including the de facto independent part Northern Cyprus which is not recognised as a sovereign nation by the vast majority of sovereign nations, nor the UN.
Population and density figures are from the first results of census and are given without the disputed territory of Kosovo. Amsterdam is the official capital, while The Hague is the administrative seat. However, only the population figure refers to the entire country. The population and area figures include the entire state respectively. This includes the exclave of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and the region Nagorno-Karabakh that has declared, and de facto achieved , independence. Nevertheless, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states. International recognition , however, is limited.
The precision of these figures is compromised by the ambiguous geographical extent of Europe and the lack of references for European portions of transcontinental countries. Its sovereign status is unclear. Its population is July CIA estimate. To checkout, click the shopping cart in the upper right corner of your screen, and proceed with the checkout process. Donations to the Champlain Society are fully tax-deductible and receipts will be mailed out in the new year. In your shopping cart Recently added item s You have no items in your shopping cart. Browse Inside.
SKU SP Add to Cart. Quick Overview The essays in European Security Since the Fall of the Berlin Wall collectively take stock of how approaches to security in Europe have changed, both in practice and in theory, since the end of the Cold War. Reviews 'In a concise and intellectually engaging manner, European Security since the Fall of the Berlin Wall succeeds in illuminating real changes in European security, as well as consequent changes in academic thinking.
Readers will easily identify common themes and perspectives in this creative and appealing contribution to research. Each essay contained in this collection represents an excellent piece of scholarship, and an accessible and vital contribution to thinking about contemporary international security problems. Related Titles. Choose charity:. The Champlain Society. Remove donation.